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London Underground

Rapid transit system in London, England / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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The London Underground (also known simply as the Underground or by its nickname the Tube) is a rapid transit system serving Greater London and some parts of the adjacent home counties of Buckinghamshire, Essex and Hertfordshire in England.[5]

Quick facts: London Underground, Overview, Locale, Transit...
London Underground
London Underground logo, known as the roundel, is made of a red circle with a horizontal blue bar.
Front view of a small profile train emerging from the tunnel north of Hendon Central on the Northern line, showing the small gap between the train's curved roof and tunnel's "tube".
The nickname "Tube" comes from the circular tube-like tunnels through which the small profile trains travel.
A London Underground S Stock train departs Farringdon with a Metropolitan Line service to Aldgate, with people waiting on the platform to board the next train.
A sub-surface Metropolitan line train (S8 Stock) at Farringdon
LocaleGreater London, Buckinghamshire, Essex, Hertfordshire
Transit typeRapid transit
Number of lines11[1]
Number of stations272 served[1] (262 owned)
Daily ridership3.15 million (January 2023)[2]
Annual ridership1.026 billion (2022/2023)[2] Edit this at Wikidata
Began operation10 January 1863; 160 years ago (1863-01-10)
Operator(s)London Underground Limited
Reporting marksLT (National Rail)[3]
System length402 km (250 mi)[1]
Track gauge
  • 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) standard gauge (1863–pres.)
  • 7 ft (2,134 mm) Brunel gauge (1863–1869)
Electrification630–750 V DC fourth rail
Average speed33 km/h (21 mph)[4]

The Underground has its origins in the Metropolitan Railway, the world's first underground passenger railway. Opened on 10 January 1863,[6] it is now part of the Circle, District, Hammersmith & City and Metropolitan lines. The first line to operate underground electric traction trains, the City & South London Railway in 1890, is now part of the Northern line.[7] The network has expanded to 11 lines, and in 2020/21 was used for 296 million passenger journeys,[8] making it one of the world's busiest metro systems. The 11 lines collectively handle up to 5 million passenger journeys a day and serve 272 stations.[9]

The system's first tunnels were built just below the ground, using the cut-and-cover method; later, smaller, roughly circular tunnels—which gave rise to its nickname, the Tube—were dug through at a deeper level.[10] The system serves 272 stations and has 250 miles (400 km) of track.[11] Despite its name, only 45% of the system is under the ground: much of the network in the outer environs of London is on the surface.[11] In addition, the Underground does not cover most southern parts of Greater London, and there are only 33 Underground stations south of the River Thames.[12]

The early tube lines, originally owned by several private companies, were brought together under the Underground brand in the early 20th century, and eventually merged along with the sub-surface lines and bus services in 1933 to form London Transport under the control of the London Passenger Transport Board (LPTB). The current operator, London Underground Limited (LUL), is a wholly owned subsidiary of Transport for London (TfL), the statutory corporation responsible for the transport network in London.[10] As of 2015, 92% of operational expenditure is covered by passenger fares.[13] The Travelcard ticket was introduced in 1983 and Oyster card, a contactless ticketing system, in 2003.[14] Contactless bank card payments were introduced in 2014,[15] the first such use on a public transport system.[16]

The LPTB commissioned many new station buildings, posters and public artworks in a modernist style.[17][18][19] The schematic Tube map, designed by Harry Beck in 1931, was voted a national design icon in 2006 and now includes other transport systems besides the Underground, such as the Docklands Light Railway, London Overground, Thameslink, the Elizabeth line, and Tramlink. Other famous London Underground branding includes the roundel and the Johnston typeface, created by Edward Johnston in 1916.