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The Ministry of Public Security (MPS, Chinese: 公安部; pinyin: Gōng'ānbù) is a government ministry of the People's Republic of China responsible for public and political security. It oversees more than 1.9 million of the country's law enforcement officers and as such the vast majority of the People's Police. The MPS is a nationwide police force; however, counterintelligence and political security of the Chinese Communist Party remain core functions.
Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Gōng'ānbù
Ministry of Public Security Headquarters
|Formed||1954; 69 years ago (1954)|
|Type||Constituent Department of the State Council (cabinet-level),|
National level police and counterintelligence agency
|Jurisdiction||Government of China|
|Parent agency||State Council|
The ministry was established in 1949 after the Chinese Communist Party's victory in the Chinese Civil War as the successor to the Central Social Affairs Department and was known as Ministry of Public Security of the Central People's Government until 1954. Grand General Luo Ruiqing of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) was its first minister. As the ministry's organization was based on Soviet and Eastern Bloc models, it was responsible for all aspects of national security; ranging from regular police work to intelligence, counterintelligence and the suppression of anti-communist political and societal sentiments. Military intelligence affairs remained with the General Staff Department, while the International Liaison Department of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) was active in fomenting revolutionary tendencies worldwide by funneling weapons, money and resources to various pro-CCP movements.
The ministry employs a system of Public Security Bureaus throughout the provinces, cities, municipalities and townships of China. The special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau maintain nominally separate police forces. The ministry is headed by the Minister of Public Security, who is nominated by the Premier of the People's Republic of China and confirmed by the National People's Congress (NPC). Wang Xiaohong has been the minister in charge since June 2022.