In null-hypothesis significance testing, the ** p-value**[note 1] is the probability of obtaining test results at least as extreme as the result actually observed, under the assumption that the null hypothesis is correct.[2][3] A very small

*p*-value means that such an extreme observed outcome would be very unlikely under the null hypothesis. Reporting

*p*-values of statistical tests is common practice in academic publications of many quantitative fields. Since the precise meaning of

*p*-value is hard to grasp, misuse is widespread and has been a major topic in metascience.[4][5]

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