Branch of mathematics concerning chance and uncertainty / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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In science, the probability of an event is a number that indicates how likely the event is to occur. It is expressed as a number in the range from 0 and 1, or, using percentage notation, in the range from 0% to 100%. The more likely it is that the event will occur, the higher its probability. The probability of an impossible event is 0; that of an event that is certain to occur is 1.[note 1] The probabilities of two complementary events A and B – either A occurs or B occurs – add up to 1. A simple example is the tossing of a fair (unbiased) coin. If a coin is fair, the two possible outcomes ("heads" and "tails") are equally likely; since these two outcomes are complementary and the probability of "heads" equals the probability of "tails", the probability of each of the two outcomes equals 1/2 (which could also be written as 0.5 or 50%).
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These concepts have been given an axiomatic mathematical formalization in probability theory, a branch of mathematics that is used in areas of study such as statistics, mathematics, science, finance, gambling, artificial intelligence, machine learning, computer science and game theory to, for example, draw inferences about the expected frequency of events. Probability theory is also used to describe the underlying mechanics and regularities of complex systems.