Ruth Bader Ginsburg

US Supreme Court justice from 1993 to 2020 / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Joan Ruth Bader Ginsburg (/ˈbdər ˈɡɪnzbɜːrɡ/ BAY-dər GHINZ-burg; née Bader; March 15, 1933 – September 18, 2020)[1] was an American lawyer and jurist who served as an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1993 until her death in 2020.[2] She was nominated by President Bill Clinton to replace retiring justice Byron White, and at the time was viewed as a moderate consensus-builder.[3] Ginsburg was the first Jewish woman and the second woman to serve on the Court, after Sandra Day O'Connor. During her tenure, Ginsburg authored the majority opinions in cases such as United States v. Virginia (1996), Olmstead v. L.C. (1999), Friends of the Earth, Inc. v. Laidlaw Environmental Services, Inc. (2000), and City of Sherrill v. Oneida Indian Nation of New York (2005). Later in her tenure, Ginsburg received attention for passionate dissents that reflected liberal views of the law. She was popularly dubbed "the Notorious R.B.G.",[lower-alpha 1] a moniker she later embraced.[4]

Quick facts: Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Associate Justice of the...
Ruth Bader Ginsburg
Ginsburg seated in her robe
Official portrait, 2016
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States
In office
August 10, 1993  September 18, 2020
Nominated byBill Clinton
Preceded byByron White
Succeeded byAmy Coney Barrett
Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit
In office
June 30, 1980  August 9, 1993
Nominated byJimmy Carter
Preceded byHarold Leventhal
Succeeded byDavid Tatel
Personal details
Born
Joan Ruth Bader

(1933-03-15)March 15, 1933
New York City, U.S.
DiedSeptember 18, 2020(2020-09-18) (aged 87)
Washington, D.C., U.S.
Resting placeArlington National Cemetery
Spouse
(m. 1954; died 2010)
Children
Education
SignatureRuth_Bader_Ginsburg_signature.svg
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Ginsburg was born and grew up in Brooklyn, New York. Her older sister, Marilyn, died of meningitis at the age of six, when Joan was a baby, and her mother died shortly before she graduated from high school.[5] She earned her bachelor's degree at Cornell University and married Martin D. Ginsburg, becoming a mother before starting law school at Harvard, where she was one of the few women in her class. Ginsburg transferred to Columbia Law School, where she graduated joint first in her class. During the early 1960s she worked with the Columbia Law School Project on International Procedure, learned Swedish, and co-authored a book with Swedish jurist Anders Bruzelius; her work in Sweden profoundly influenced her thinking on gender equality. She then became a professor at Rutgers Law School and Columbia Law School, teaching civil procedure as one of the few women in her field.

Ginsburg spent much of her legal career as an advocate for gender equality and women's rights, winning many arguments before the Supreme Court. She advocated as a volunteer attorney for the American Civil Liberties Union and was a member of its board of directors and one of its general counsel in the 1970s. In 1980, President Jimmy Carter appointed her to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, where she served until her appointment to the Supreme Court in 1993. Between O'Connor's retirement in 2006 and the appointment of Sonia Sotomayor in 2009, she was the only female justice on the Supreme Court. During that time, Ginsburg became more forceful with her dissents, such as with Ledbetter v. Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. (2007).

Despite two bouts with cancer and public pleas from liberal law scholars, she decided not to retire in 2013 or 2014 when Obama and a Democratic-controlled Senate could appoint and confirm her successor.[6][7][8] Ginsburg died at her home in Washington, D.C., in September 2020, at the age of 87, from complications of metastatic pancreatic cancer. The vacancy created by her death was filled 39 days later by Amy Coney Barrett. The result was one of three major rightward shifts in the Court since 1953, following the appointment of Clarence Thomas to replace Thurgood Marshall in 1991 and the appointment of Warren Burger to replace Earl Warren in 1969.[9]

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