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Shangdu

Summer capital of Yuan dynasty / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Shangdu (Chinese: ; lit. 'Upper Capital'; Mandarin pronunciation: [ʂɑ̂ŋ tú]; Mongolian: ᠱᠠᠩᠳᠤ Шанду, Šandu), also known as Xanadu (/ˈzænəd/ ZAN-ə-doo), was the summer capital[1][2] of the Yuan dynasty of China before Kublai moved his throne to the former Jin dynasty capital of Zhōngdū (Chinese: ; lit. 'Middle Capital') which was renamed Khanbaliq (present-day Beijing). Shangdu is located in the present-day Zhenglan Banner, Inner Mongolia. In June 2012, it was made a World Heritage Site for its historical importance and for the unique blending of Mongolian and Chinese culture.[3]

Quick facts: UNESCO World Heritage Site, Location, Criteri...
Site of Xanadu
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Yuan_Shangdu.jpg
Ruins of Shangdu
LocationShangdu Town, Zhenglan Banner, Inner Mongolia, China
CriteriaCultural: ii, iii, iv, vi
Reference1389
Inscription2020 (44th Session)
Area25,131.27 ha
Buffer zone150,721.96 ha
Coordinates42°21′35″N 116°10′45″E
Shangdu is located in Inner Mongolia
Shangdu
Location of Shangdu
Shangdu is located in China
Shangdu
Shangdu (China)
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Quick facts: Shangdu, Chinese, Hanyu Pinyin, Literal meani...
Shangdu
Chinese
Hanyu PinyinShàngdū
Literal meaningUpper Capital
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Xanadu_on_Map_of_Asia.JPG
Shangdu (here spelled Ciandu, as Marco Polo spelled it) on the French map of Asia made by Sanson d'Abbeville, geographer of King Louis XIV, dated 1650. It also shows a Xandu east of Cambalu, where English maps placed it. Like some other European maps of the time, this map shows Cambalu and Pequin as two different cities, but they were in fact the same city, now called Beijing. When this map was made, Shangdu had been in ruins for almost three centuries.
John-Speed-The-Kingdome-of-China-1626-2544.jpg
Even though Matteo Ricci and Bento de Góis had already proven that Cathay is simply another name for China, the English cartographer John Speed in 1626 continued the tradition of showing "Cathaya, the Chief Kingdome of Great Cam" to the northeast of China. On his map, he placed Xandu east of the "Cathayan metropolis" Cambalu

Venetian traveller Marco Polo described Shangdu to Europeans after visiting it in 1275. It was conquered in 1369 by the Ming dynasty army under the Hongwu Emperor. In 1797, historical accounts of the city inspired the famous poem Kubla Khan by the English Romantic poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge.

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