By-product of smelting ores and used metals / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Slag is a by-product of smelting (pyrometallurgical) ores and used metals.[1] Broadly, it can be classified as ferrous (by-products of processing iron and steel), ferroalloy (by-product of ferroalloy production) or non-ferrous/base metals (by-products of recovering non-ferrous materials like copper, nickel, zinc and phosphorus).[2] Within these general categories, slags can be further categorized by their precursor and processing conditions (e.g., blast furnace (BF) slags, air-cooled blast furnace (ACBF) slag, basic oxygen furnace (BOF) slag, and electric arc furnace (EAF) slag).

Global production of iron and steel, 1942–2018, according to USGS.[3]
Molten slag is carried outside and poured into a dump

Due to the large demand for these materials, slag production has also significantly increased throughout the years despite recycling (most notably in the iron and steelmaking industries) and upcycling efforts. The World Steel Association (WSA) estimates that 600 kg of by-products (about 90 wt% is slags) are generated per tonne of steel produced. [4]