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Womanism is a social theory based on the history and everyday experiences of black women. It seeks, according to womanist scholar Layli Maparyan (Phillips), to "restore the balance between people and the environment/nature and reconcil[e] human life with the spiritual dimension." Writer Alice Walker coined the term "womanist" in a short story, Coming Apart, in 1979. Since Walker's initial use, the term has evolved to envelop a spectrum of varied perspectives on the issues facing black women.