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維基百科,自由的百科全書

日文名稱
日文漢字
假名ごう ‧ がう
舊字體
羅馬字 ‧ gau
韓文名稱
諺文
韓文漢字
文觀部式ho
馬賴式ho
越南文名稱 ()
國語字hiệu
漢喃文

中國傳統文化中,人除了有之外,有時亦會為自己取,又稱別號別字。號是較正式的別名,以言意托志。受古代中國文化的影響,包括日本、韓國、越南等在內的東亞國家都有這樣的習慣傳統。

在東亞文化中,直呼別人之是十分無禮的。正常來說,只有長輩能直呼其名,平輩以字相稱,後輩就用號來稱呼前輩。[1]故稱呼別人時,對有之人多呼其字,對有號之人則多呼其號,而不會直稱其名。如蘇軾,一字子瞻,一字和仲,自號東坡居士,道號東坡道人。人多稱之為蘇東坡,而不會直呼其名。有些人的號因此比他的本名或字更為人所熟悉,如祝枝山(本名允明),徐霞客(本名弘祖),曹雪芹(本名霑),鄭板橋(本名燮),李叔同(本名廣侯),鄧澤如(本名文恩)。

另外,因應不同的用途也會有不同的號,如詩號、畫號、武號等。士大夫還流行以自己的居處或書齋之號為別號,是為庵號佛教道教檀越出家人為了宗教取的號,稱法號,或道號。

參考文獻

  1. ^ 秦始皇︰一場歷史的思辨之旅. 博客來. [2020-02-12]. (原始內容存檔於2020-02-12). 
  • Frederic, Louis (2002). "Gō." Japan Encyclopedia. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
  • Lane, Richard (1978). Images of the Floating World. Old Saybrook, CT: Konecky & Konecky.
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