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2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami

Earthquake and subsequent tsunami in the Indian Ocean / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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On 26 December 2004, at 07:58:53 local time (UTC+7), a major earthquake with a magnitude of 9.1–9.3 Mw struck with an epicentre off the west coast of northern Sumatra, Indonesia. The undersea megathrust earthquake, known by the scientific community as the Sumatra–Andaman earthquake,[9][10] was caused by a rupture along the fault between the Burma Plate and the Indian Plate, and reached a Mercalli intensity up to IX in some areas.

Quick facts: UTC time, ISC event, USGS-ANSS, Loc...
  • 2004 Indian Ocean
  • earthquake and tsunami
  • From top, left to right: Banda Aceh, Indonesia, after the tsunami • Korean rescue workers recovering a body under debris • a man searching through rubble in Meulaboh • people running away from the tsunami • a tsunami memorial in Kerala, India
2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami is located in Indian Ocean
2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami
2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami is located in Sumatra
2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami
2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami is located in Earth
2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami
UTC time2004-12-26 00:58:53
ISC event7453151
Local date26 December 2004; 18 years ago (2004-12-26)[1]
Local time
Magnitude9.1–9.3 Mw[2]
Depth30 km (19 mi)[1]
Epicentre3.316°N 95.854°E / 3.316; 95.854[1]
Areas affectedIndian Ocean coastline areas
Max. intensityIX (Violent)
  • 15 to 30 m (50 to 100 ft);[3][4]
  • max. 51 m (167 ft)[5]
Casualties227,898 dead[6][7][8]

A massive tsunami with waves up to 30 m (100 ft) high, known in some countries as the Boxing Day Tsunami after the Boxing Day holiday, devastated communities along the surrounding coasts of the Indian Ocean, killing an estimated 227,898 people in 14 countries in one of the deadliest natural disasters in recorded history. The direct results caused major disruptions to living conditions and commerce in coastal provinces of surrounded countries, including Aceh (Indonesia), Sri Lanka, Tamil Nadu (India) and Khao Lak (Thailand). Banda Aceh reported the largest number of deaths. It remains the deadliest natural disaster of the 21st century.[11]

It was the most powerful earthquake ever recorded in Asia, the most powerful earthquake in the 21st century, and the third most powerful earthquake ever recorded in the world since modern seismography began in 1900. It had the longest duration of faulting ever observed, between eight and ten minutes.[12] It caused the planet to vibrate as much as 10 mm (0.4 in),[13] and also remotely triggered earthquakes as far away as Alaska.[14] Its epicentre was between Simeulue and mainland Sumatra.[15] The plight of the affected people and countries prompted a worldwide humanitarian response, with donations totalling more than US$14 billion[16] (equivalent to US$22 billion in 2022 currency).