Analog-to-digital converter

System that converts an analog signal into a digital signal / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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In electronics, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC, A/D, or A-to-D) is a system that converts an analog signal, such as a sound picked up by a microphone or light entering a digital camera, into a digital signal. An ADC may also provide an isolated measurement such as an electronic device that converts an analog input voltage or current to a digital number representing the magnitude of the voltage or current. Typically the digital output is a two's complement binary number that is proportional to the input, but there are other possibilities.

4-channel stereo multiplexed analog-to-digital converter WM8775SEDS made by Wolfson Microelectronics placed on an X-Fi Fatal1ty Pro sound card
AD570 8-bit successive-approximation analog-to-digital converter
AD570/AD571 silicon die
INTERSIL ICL7107. 3.5 digit (i.e. conversion from analog to a numeric range of 0 to 1999 vs. 3 digit range of 0 to 999, typically used in meters, counters, etc.) single-chip A/D converter
ICL7107 silicon die

There are several ADC architectures. Due to the complexity and the need for precisely matched components, all but the most specialized ADCs are implemented as integrated circuits (ICs). These typically take the form of metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) mixed-signal integrated circuit chips that integrate both analog and digital circuits.

A digital-to-analog converter (DAC) performs the reverse function; it converts a digital signal into an analog signal.