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A capital gains tax (CGT) is the tax on profits realized on the sale of a non-inventory asset. The most common capital gains are realized from the sale of stocks, bonds, precious metals, real estate, and property.
Not all countries impose a capital gains tax and most have different rates of taxation for individuals compared to corporations. Countries that do not impose a capital gains tax include Bahrain, Barbados, Belize, the Cayman Islands, the Isle of Man, Jamaica, New Zealand, Sri Lanka, Singapore, and others. In some countries, such as New Zealand and Singapore, professional traders and those who trade frequently are taxed on such profits as a business income. In Sweden, the Investment Savings Account (ISK – Investeringssparkonto) was introduced in 2012 in response to a decision by Parliament to stimulate saving in funds and equities. There is no tax on capital gains in ISKs; instead, the saver pays an annual standard low rate of tax. Fund savers nowadays mainly choose to save in funds via investment savings accounts.
Capital gains taxes are payable on most valuable items or assets sold at a profit. Antiques, shares, precious metals and second homes could be all subject to the tax if the profit is large enough. This lower boundary of profit is set by the government. If the profit is lower than this limit it is tax-free. The profit is in most cases the difference between the amount (or value) an asset is sold for and the amount it was bought for.
The tax rate on capital gains may depend on the sellers income. For example, in the UK the CGT is currently (tax year 2021–22) 10% for incomes under £50,000 and 20% for higher incomes. There is an additional tax that adds 8% to the existing tax rate if the profit comes from residential property. If any property is sold at a loss, it is possible to offset it against annual gains. The CGT allowance for one tax year in the UK is currently £12,300 for an individual and double (£24,600) for a married couple or in a civil partnership. For equities, national and state legislation often has a large array of fiscal obligations that must be respected regarding capital gains. Taxes are charged by the state over the transactions, dividends and capital gains on the stock market. However, these fiscal obligations may vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction.
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