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Central Java (Indonesian: Jawa Tengah) is a province of Indonesia, located in the middle of the island of Java. Its administrative capital is Semarang. It is bordered by West Java in the west, the Indian Ocean and the Special Region of Yogyakarta in the south, East Java in the east, and the Java Sea in the north. It has a total area of 32,800.69 km2, with a population of 36,516,035 at the 2020 Census[6] making it the third-most populous province in both Java and Indonesia after West Java and East Java. The official estimate as at mid 2021 was 36,742,501.[2] The province also includes the island of Nusakambangan in the south (close to the border of West Java), and the Karimun Jawa Islands in the Java Sea.

Quick facts: Central Java Jawa Tengah, Established, Ca...
Central Java
Jawa Tengah
Prasetya Ulah Sakti Bhakti Praja
"The Powerful Devotion for the Country"
   Central Java in    Indonesia
Coordinates: 7°30′S 110°00′E
Established19 August 1945[1]
and largest city
  BodyCentral Java Provincial Government
  GovernorGanjar Pranowo
  Vice GovernorTaj Yasin Maimoen
  Total32,800.69 km2 (12,664.42 sq mi)
Highest elevation3,428 m (11,247 ft)
 (mid 2021 estimate)[2]
  Rank3rd in Indonesia
  Density1,100/km2 (2,900/sq mi)
  Ethnic groups97.9% Javanese
1.4% Sundanese
0.4% Chinese
0.3% other[3]
  Religion97.30% Islam
2.50% Christianity
– 1.58% Protestantism
– 0.92% Catholicism
0.14% Buddhism
0.04% Hinduism
0.02% Kejawen
0.004% Confucianism[4]
  LanguagesIndonesian (official)
Javanese (native)
Sundanese (minority)
Time zoneUTC+7 (Indonesia Western Time)
ISO 3166 codeID-JT
HDI 0.717 (High)
HDI rank13th in Indonesia (2019)
GRP Nominal$96.35 billion[5]
GDP PPP (2019)$316.69 billion[5]
GDP rank4th in Indonesia (2019)
Nominal per capitaUS$ 2,775 (2019)[5]
PPP per capitaUS$ 9,123 (2019)[5]
Per capita rank25th in Indonesia (2019)

Central Java is also a cultural concept that includes the Yogyakarta Special Region, in turn including the city of Yogyakarta; however, administratively that city and its surrounding regencies have formed a separate special region (equivalent to a province) since the country's independence, and is administrated separately. Although known as the "heart" of Javanese culture, there are several other non-Javanese ethnic groups, such as the Sundanese on the border with West Java. Chinese Indonesians, Arab Indonesians, and Indian Indonesians are also scattered throughout the province.

The province has been inhabited by humans since the prehistoric-era. Remains of a Homo erectus, known as "Java Man", were found along the banks of the Bengawan Solo River, and date back to 1.7 million years ago.[7] What is present-day Central Java was once under the control of several Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms, Islamic sultanates, and the Dutch East Indies colonial government. Central Java was also the centre of the Indonesian independence movement. As the majority of modern-day Indonesians are of Javanese descent, both Central Java and East Java have a major impact on Indonesia's social, political, and economic life.

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