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Madhya Pradesh

State in central India / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Madhya Pradesh (/ˌmədjə prəˈdɛʃ/,[10] Hindi: [ˈməd̪ʱjə pɾəˈdeːʃ] (Loudspeaker.svglisten); meaning 'central province') is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal, and the largest city is Indore, with Jabalpur, Ujjain, Gwalior, Sagar, Satna, Narmadapuram, Shahdol, Rewa and Morena being the other major cities. Madhya Pradesh is the second largest Indian state by area and the fifth largest state by population with over 72 million residents. It borders the states of Uttar Pradesh to the northeast, Chhattisgarh to the east, Maharashtra to the south, Gujarat to the west, and Rajasthan to the northwest.[11]

Quick facts: Madhya Pradesh, Country, Region, , Before was...
Madhya Pradesh
From top, left to right: UNESCO Temples at the Khajuraho Group of Monuments, Great Stupa of Sanchi, Chital deer at Kanha National Park, Marble Rocks near Jabalpur, Bhimbetka rock shelters and Jahaz Mahal in the ancient city of Mandu
Etymology: Central Lands
"Heart of India"
Satyameva Jayate (Truth alone triumphs)
Anthem: Mera Madhya Pradesh (My Madhya Pradesh)[1]
The map of India showing Madhya Pradesh
Location of Madhya Pradesh in India
CountryFlag_of_India.svg India
RegionCentral India
Before wasMadhya Bharat
Vindhya Pradesh
Bhopal state
Formation1 November 1956
Largest CityIndore
Districts52 (10 divisions)
  BodyGovernment of Madhya Pradesh
  GovernorMangubhai C. Patel
  Chief MinisterShivraj Singh Chouhan[2] (BJP)
State LegislatureUnicameral
  AssemblyMadhya Pradesh Legislative Assembly (230 seats)
National ParliamentParliament of India
  Rajya Sabha11 seats
  Lok Sabha29 seats
High CourtMadhya Pradesh High Court
  Total308,245 km2 (119,014 sq mi)
  Length605 km (376 mi)
  Width870 km (540 mi)
400 m (1,300 ft)
Highest elevation1,352 m (4,436 ft)
Lowest elevation
90 m (300 ft)
  TotalNeutral increase 72,626,809
  Density240/km2 (600/sq mi)
DemonymMadhya Pradeshis
  Official ScriptDevanagari script
  Total (2021-22)Neutral increase11.69 trillion (US$150 billion)
  Per capitaNeutral increase124,685 (US$1,600) (24th)
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
ISO 3166 codeIN-MP
Vehicle registrationMp
HDI (2018)Increase 0.606 Medium[7] (34rd)
Literacy (2011)Increase 70.6% (27th)
Sex ratio (2011)970/1000 [8] (15th)
Symbols of Madhya Pradesh
SongMera Madhya Pradesh (My Madhya Pradesh)[9]
BirdIndian paradise flycatcher
FlowerWhite lily
TreeBanyan Tree
State Highway Mark
State Highway of Madhya Pradesh
MP SH1 - MP SH53
List of State Symbols

The area covered by the present-day Madhya Pradesh includes the area of the ancient Avanti Mahajanapada, whose capital Ujjain (also known as Avantika) arose as a major city during the second wave of Indian urbanisation in the sixth century BCE. Subsequently, the region was ruled by the major dynasties of India. The Maratha Empire dominated the majority of the 18th century. After the Anglo-Maratha Wars in the 19th century, the region was divided into several princely states under the British and incorporated into Central Provinces and Berar and the Central India Agency. After India's independence, Madhya Pradesh state was created with Nagpur as its capital: this state included the southern parts of the present-day Madhya Pradesh and northeastern portion of today's Maharashtra. In 1956, this state was reorganised and its parts were combined with the states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh and Bhopal to form the new Madhya Pradesh state, the Marathi-speaking Vidarbha region was removed and merged with the Bombay State. This state was the largest in India by area until 2000, when its southeastern Chhattisgarh region was designated a separate state.

The economy of Madhya Pradesh is the 10th-largest in India, with a gross state domestic product (GSDP) of 9.17 trillion (US$110 billion) and has the country's 26th highest per-capita income of 109372.[6] Madhya Pradesh ranks 23rd among Indian states in human development index.[12] Rich in mineral resources, Madhya Pradesh has the largest reserves of diamond and copper in India. 25.14% of its area is under forest cover.[13] Its tourism industry has seen considerable growth, with the state topping the National Tourism Awards in 2010–11.[14] In recent years, the state's GDP growth has been above the national average.[15] In 2019–20, state's GSDP was recorded at 9.07.[16]