Myanmar civil war (2021–present)

Ongoing armed conflict in Myanmar since the 2021 coup d'etat / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Myanmar civil war,[lower-alpha 3] also called the Myanmar Spring Revolution or People's Defensive War, is an ongoing civil war following Myanmar's long-running insurgencies, which escalated significantly in response to the 2021 military coup d'état and the subsequent violent crackdown on anti-coup protests.[22][23] As of January 2024, thousands of soldiers have surrendered without a fight, including six generals of the Tatmadaw.[24] A group of observers writes that the Tatmadaw's forces remain "formidable and well-equipped", with "external allies and economic resources".[25][26]

Myanmar civil war
Part of the Myanmar conflict
Myanmar_civil_war.svg
Military situation as of 15 February 2024:

State Administration Council and allies

  Tatmadaw and allies

National Unity Government and allies

  People's Defence Force and allies
  Karenni resistance forces
  Chinland resistance forces and allies

Other combatants

For a detailed accurate up-to-date map, see here

For a list of engagements, see here
Date5 May 2021–present
(2 years, 9 months and 3 weeks)
Location
Myanmar (with spillovers in neighbouring countries)
Status Ongoing
Territorial
changes
  • Tatmadaw's stable control drops to between 72–220 out of 330 townships, though continues to control most major population centers[1][2]
  • Two district-level or higher towns have come under the control of the anti-junta forces[3][4]
  • State of Chinland declared[5]
Belligerents

Myanmar National Unity Government

Allied ethnic armed organisations:

Other organizations:

Flag_of_Myanmar.svg State Administration Council

Aligned ethnic armed organisations:

Commanders and leaders
Strength
100,000 (PDF, February 2024 estimate)[12] and more than 100,000 (LDF and allied ethnic armed organisations, EAOs) about 150,000 personnel; 70,000 combat troops (Tatmadaw, May 2023 estimate)[13]
Casualties and losses
  • 45,264 total killed (per ACLED, 12 January 2024)[14]
  • 4,218 civilians killed, 25,489 arrested (per AAPP, 1 December 2023)[15]
  • 2,330,200+ internally displaced, 95,600 refugees per United Nations 15 December 2023[16][17]
  • 11,400 residences destroyed (per ISP–Myanmar and Data for Myanmar, as of 12 May 2022)[18]
  • 12,000 civilian properties estimated burnt or destroyed since February 2022 (per OCHA, 31 May 2022)[19]
  • 440 houses and buildings sealed off by the Junta (per AAPP, February 2022).[20]
  • Two killed and 17 injured inside Bangladesh[21]

As of March 2023, the United Nations (UN) estimated that since the coup in February 2021, 17.6 million people in Myanmar required humanitarian assistance, while 1.6 million were internally displaced, and over 55,000 civilian buildings had been destroyed.[27] UNOCHA said that over 40,000 people had fled into neighboring countries, such as Bangladesh, India and Thailand.[28]

As of October 2023, the Tatmadaw controlled under 40% of the country, although they maintain that they still control around two thirds of the country's 330 townships.[2][29] In the second half of 2023, Chinland Defense Forces in the state of Chin had captured a majority of the state, with a few holdouts in urban areas and along the India-Myanmar border remaining. In October 2023, the Tatmadaw began facing manpower issues, with desertions and low morale being extremely common, coinciding with the PDF and Three Brotherhood Alliance's major rebel offensive in the west of the country, Operation 1027, which was successful in taking 80 bases, 220 junta positions and several towns by 28 November 2023.[30]

October and November 2023 saw a series of counter-offensives, including Operation 1111 besieging the state capital of Loikaw and renewed conflict by anti-junta forces in northern Rakhine and Chin states.[31][32][33] In Operation 1027, anti-junta forces seized the district-level town of Kawlin, Sagaing Region (later recaptured by junta forces) in early November 2023 as well as Laukkai, the capital of Kokang Self-Administered Zone, in early January 2024.[34][4] Operation 1027 continued past a ceasefire in northern Shan State with Mrauk U, among others, falling to Arakan Army forces in February 2024.[3]

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