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Chemical element, symbol Ne and atomic number 10 / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Neon is a chemical element; it has symbol Ne and atomic number 10. It is the second noble gas in the periodic table.[11]

Quick facts: Neon, Appearance, Standard atomic weight .mw-...
Neon, 10Ne
Appearancecolorless gas exhibiting an orange-red glow when placed in an electric field
Standard atomic weight Ar°(Ne)
  • 20.1797±0.0006
  • 20.180±0.001 (abridged)[1]
Neon in the periodic table


Atomic number (Z)10
Groupgroup 18 (noble gases)
Periodperiod 2
Block  p-block
Electron configuration[He] 2s2 2p6
Electrons per shell2, 8
Physical properties
Phase at STPgas
Melting point24.56 K (−248.59 °C, −415.46 °F)
Boiling point27.104 K (−246.046 °C, −410.883 °F)
Density (at STP)0.9002 g/L
when liquid (at b.p.)1.207 g/cm3[2]
Triple point24.556 K, 43.37 kPa[3][4]
Critical point44.4918 K, 2.7686 MPa[4]
Heat of fusion0.335 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization1.71 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity20.79[5] J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 12 13 15 18 21 27
Atomic properties
Oxidation states0
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 2080.7 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 3952.3 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 6122 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Covalent radius58 pm
Van der Waals radius154 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of neon
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structure face-centered cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic crystal structure for neon
Speed of sound435 m/s (gas, at 0 °C)
Thermal conductivity49.1×103 W/(m⋅K)
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic[6]
Molar magnetic susceptibility−6.74×10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)[7]
Bulk modulus654 GPa
CAS Number7440-01-9
PredictionWilliam Ramsay (1897)
Discovery and first isolationWilliam Ramsay & Morris Travers[8][9] (1898)
Isotopes of neon
Main isotopes[10] Decay
abun­dance half-life (t1/2) mode pro­duct
20Ne 90.5% stable
21Ne 0.27% stable
22Ne 9.25% stable
Symbol_category_class.svg Category: Neon
| references

Neon is a colorless, odorless, inert monatomic gas under standard conditions, with about two-thirds the density of air. It was discovered along with krypton and xenon in 1898 as one of the three residual rare inert elements remaining in dry air after nitrogen, oxygen, argon and carbon dioxide were removed. Neon was the second of these three rare gases to be discovered and was immediately recognized as a new element from its bright red emission spectrum. The name neon is derived from the Greek word, νέον, neuter singular form of νέος (neos), meaning 'new'. Neon is chemically inert, and no uncharged neon compounds are known. The compounds of neon currently known include ionic molecules, molecules held together by van der Waals forces and clathrates.

During cosmic nucleogenesis of the elements, large amounts of neon are built up from the alpha-capture fusion process in stars. Although neon is a very common element in the universe and solar system (it is fifth in cosmic abundance after hydrogen, helium, oxygen and carbon), it is rare on Earth. It composes about 18.2 ppm of air by volume (this is about the same as the molecular or mole fraction) and a smaller fraction in Earth's crust. The reason for neon's relative scarcity on Earth and the inner (terrestrial) planets is that neon is highly volatile and forms no compounds to fix it to solids. As a result, it escaped from the planetesimals under the warmth of the newly ignited Sun in the early Solar System. Even the outer atmosphere of Jupiter is somewhat depleted of neon, although for a different reason.[12]

Neon gives a distinct reddish-orange glow when used in low-voltage neon glow lamps, high-voltage discharge tubes and neon advertising signs.[13][14] The red emission line from neon also causes the well-known red light of helium–neon lasers. Neon is used in some plasma tube and refrigerant applications but has few other commercial uses. It is commercially extracted by the fractional distillation of liquid air. Since air is the only source, neon is considerably more expensive than helium.

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