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Ojibwe language

Central Algonquian language of North America / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Ojibwe /ˈɪbw/,[2] also known as Ojibwa /ˈɪbwə/,[3][4][5] Ojibway, Otchipwe,[6] Ojibwemowin, or Anishinaabemowin, is an indigenous language of North America of the Algonquian language family.[7][8] The language is characterized by a series of dialects that have local names and frequently local writing systems. There is no single dialect that is considered the most prestigious or most prominent, and no standard writing system that covers all dialects.

Quick facts: Ojibwe, Pronunciation, Native to, Region...
Anishinaabemowin, ᐊᓂᐦᔑᓈᐯᒧᐎᓐ
Native toCanada, United States
RegionCanada: Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, groups in Alberta, British Columbia; United States: Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, groups in North Dakota, Montana
EthnicityOjibwe people
Native speakers
(50,000 cited 1990–2016 censuses)[1]
Dialects(see Ojibwe dialects)
Latin (various alphabets in Canada and the United States),
Ojibwe syllabics in Canada,
Great Lakes Algonquian syllabics in the United States
Language codes
ISO 639-1oj – Ojibwa
ISO 639-2oji – Ojibwa
ISO 639-3oji – inclusive code – Ojibwa
Individual codes:
ojs  Severn Ojibwa
ojg  Eastern Ojibwa
ojc  Central Ojibwa
ojb  Northwestern Ojibwa
ojw  Western Ojibwa
ciw  Chippewa
otw  Ottawa
alq  Algonquin
Glottologojib1241  Ojibwa
Linguasphere62-ADA-d (Ojibwa+Anissinapek)
Location of all Anishinaabe Reservations/Reserves and cities with an Anishinaabe population in North America, with diffusion rings about communities speaking Anishinaabe languages.
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Dialects of Ojibwemowin are spoken in Canada, from southwestern Quebec, through Ontario, Manitoba and parts of Saskatchewan, with outlying communities in Alberta;[9][10] and in the United States, from Michigan to Wisconsin and Minnesota, with a number of communities in North Dakota and Montana, as well as groups that removed to Kansas and Oklahoma during the Indian Removal period.[10][11] While there is some variation in the classification of its dialects, at least the following are recognized, from east to west: Algonquin, Eastern Ojibwe, Ottawa (Odawa), Western Ojibwe (Saulteaux), Oji-Cree (Severn Ojibwe), Northwestern Ojibwe, and Southwestern Ojibwe (Chippewa). Based upon contemporary field research, J. R. Valentine also recognizes several other dialects: Berens Ojibwe in northwestern Ontario, which he distinguishes from Northwestern Ojibwe; North of (Lake) Superior; and Nipissing. The latter two cover approximately the same territory as Central Ojibwa, which he does not recognize.[12]

The aggregated dialects of Ojibwemowin comprise the second most commonly spoken First Nations language in Canada (after Cree),[13] and the fourth most widely spoken in the United States or Canada behind Navajo, the Inuit languages and Cree.[14]

Ojibwemowin is a relatively healthy indigenous language. The Waadookodaading Ojibwe Language Immersion School teaches all classes to children in Ojibwe only.[15]