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Turkmen language

Oghuz Turkic language of Central Asia / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Turkmen (türkmençe, түркменче, تۆرکمنچه, [tʏɾkmøntʃø][5] or türkmen dili, түркмен дили, تۆرکمن ديلی, [tʏɾkmøn dɪlɪ]),[6] sometimes referred to as "Turkmen Turkic" or "Turkmen Turkish",[7][8][9][10] is a Turkic language spoken by the Turkmens of Central Asia. It has an estimated 5 million native speakers in Turkmenistan (where it is the official language), and a further 719,000 speakers in northeastern Iran[11] and 1.5 million people in northwestern Afghanistan,[12] where it has no official status. Turkmen is also spoken to lesser varying degrees in Turkmen communities of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan and by diaspora communities, primarily in Turkey and Russia.[13][14][15]

Quick facts: Turkmen, Native to, Ethnicity, Native sp...
türkmençe, türkmen dili,
түркменче, түркмен дили,
تۆرکمن ديلی ,تۆرکمنچه
Turkmen in the Latin, Cyrillic, and Perso-Arabic Alphabets
Native toTurkmenistan, Russia, Iran, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan[1][2]
Native speakers
11 million[3] (2009–2015)[4]
Latin (Official, Turkmen alphabet), Perso-Arabic, Cyrillic
Turkmen Braille
Official status
Official language in
Flag_of_Turkmenistan.svg Turkmenistan
Language codes
ISO 639-1tk
ISO 639-2tuk
ISO 639-3tuk
LinguaspherePart of 44-AAB-a
The distribution of the Turkmen language in Central Asia
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Turkmen is a member of the Oghuz branch of the Turkic languages. It is closely related to Azerbaijani, Crimean Tatar, Gagauz, Qashqai, and Turkish, sharing varying degrees of mutual intelligibility with each of those languages.[16] However, the closest language of Turkmen is considered Khorasani Turkic, spoken in northeastern regions of Iran and with which it shares the eastern subbranch of Oghuz languages, as well as Khorazm, the Oghuz dialect of Uzbek language spoken mainly in Khorezm along the Turkmenistan border.[17] Elsewhere in Iran, the Turkmen language comes second after the Azerbaijani language in terms of the number of speakers of Turkic languages of Iran.[18]

The standardized form of Turkmen (spoken in Turkmenistan) is based on the Teke dialect, while Iranian Turkmen use mostly the Yomud dialect, and Afghan Turkmen use the Ersary variety.[19] The Turkmen language, unlike other languages of the Oghuz branch, preserved most of the unique and archaic features of the language spoken by the early Oghuz Turks, including phonemic vowel length.[20]

Turkmen people should not be confused with the unrelated Iraqi and Syrian "Turkmen" people, who speak dialects that form a continuum between Turkish and Azerbaijani, in both cases heavily influenced by Arabic. These varieties are not Turkmen in the sense of this article.