Edinburgh (// (listen); Scots: ᅠ[ˈɛdɪnbʌrə]; Scottish Gaelic: Dùn Èideann [ˌt̪un ˈeːtʲən̪ˠ]) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas. Historically part of the county of Midlothian (interchangeably Edinburghshire before 1921), it is located in Lothian on the southern shore of the Firth of Forth. Edinburgh is Scotland's second-most populous city, after Glasgow, and the seventh-most populous city in the United Kingdom.
|City of Edinburgh|
"Auld Reekie", "Edina", "Athens of the North"
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Council area||City of Edinburgh|
|Founded||Before 7th century AD|
|• Type||Unitary authority|
|• Governing body||City of Edinburgh Council|
|• Lord Provost of Edinburgh||Robert Aldridge|
|• Capital city and council area||264 km2 (102 sq mi)|
|• Urban||119 km2 (46 sq mi)|
|Elevation||47 m (154 ft)|
|• Capital city and council area||506,520 (City)|
518,500 (Council area)
|• Density||1,828/km2 (4,730/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC±0 (GMT)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+1 (BST)|
|OS grid reference|
|Primary Airport||Edinburgh Airport|
|GDP per capita||$58,000|
|Official name||Old and New Towns of Edinburgh|
|Criteria||Cultural: ii, iv|
|Inscription||1995 (19th Session)|
|Official name||The Forth Bridge|
|Criteria||Cultural: i, iv|
|Inscription||2015 (39th Session)|
Recognised as the capital of Scotland since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh is the seat of the Scottish Government, the Scottish Parliament and the highest courts in Scotland. The city's Palace of Holyroodhouse is the official residence of the British monarchy in Scotland. The city has long been a centre of education, particularly in the fields of medicine, Scottish law, literature, philosophy, the sciences, and engineering. It is the second-largest financial centre in the United Kingdom, and the city's historical and cultural attractions have made it the UK's second-most visited tourist destination attracting 4.9 million visits, including 2.4 million from overseas in 2018. Time Out magazine rated Edinburgh the best city in the world in 2022.
Edinburgh's official population estimates are 506,520 (mid-2020) for the locality, 518,500 (mid-2019) for the City of Edinburgh council area, which takes in some outlying villages in the western part of its territory, and 1,384,950 (2019) for the wider Edinburgh and South East Scotland city region which also includes East Lothian, Fife, Midlothian, the Scottish Borders and West Lothian.
The city is the annual venue of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. It is home to national cultural institutions such as the National Museum of Scotland, the National Library of Scotland and the Scottish National Gallery. The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582 and now one of three in the city, is considered one of the best research institutions in the world, most recently placing 15th in the QS World University Rankings for 2023. The city is also known for the Edinburgh International Festival and the Fringe, the latter being the world's largest annual international arts festival. Historic sites in Edinburgh include Edinburgh Castle, the Palace of Holyroodhouse, the churches of St. Giles, Greyfriars and the Canongate, and the extensive Georgian New Town built in the 18th/19th centuries. Edinburgh's Old Town and New Town together are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, which has been managed by Edinburgh World Heritage since 1999.