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Country within the United Kingdom / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Scotland (Scots: Scotland; Scottish Gaelic: Alba [ˈal̪ˠapə] ) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Covering the northern third of the island of Great Britain,[10][11][12] Scotland is the second-largest country in the United Kingdom, and accounted for 8% of the population in 2019.[10] Scotland's only land border is a 96-mile (154-kilometre) border with England to the southeast and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, the North Sea to the northeast and east, and the Irish Sea to the south. Scotland is divided into 32 administrative subdivisions[13] and contains more than 790 islands,[14] principally in the archipelagos of the Hebrides and the Northern Isles. Most of the population, including the capital Edinburgh, is concentrated in the Central Belt—the plain between the Scottish Highlands and the Southern Uplands—in the Scottish Lowlands.

Quick facts: ScotlandScotland (Scots) Alba (Scot...
Scotland (Scots)
Alba (Scottish Gaelic)
Anthem: various,
predominantly "Flower of Scotland"
Location of Scotland (dark green)– in Europe (green & dark grey)– in the United Kingdom (green)
Location of Scotland (dark green)

 in Europe (green & dark grey)
 in the United Kingdom (green)

55°57′11″N 3°11′20″W
Largest cityGlasgow
55°51′40″N 4°15′00″W
Official languages[1]
Ethnic groups
  • 36.7% no religion
  • 1.4% Islam
  • 0.3% Hinduism
  • 0.2% Sikhism
  • 0.2% Buddhism
  • 0.1% Judaism
  • 0.3% other
  • 7.0% not stated
GovernmentDevolved parliamentary legislature within a constitutional monarchy
Charles III
Humza Yousaf
Shona Robison
Parliament of the United Kingdom
 Secretary of StateAlister Jack
 House of Commons59 MPs (of 650)
LegislatureScottish Parliament
9th century (traditionally 843)
17 March 1328
3 October 1357[3]
1 May 1707
19 November 1998
80,231 km2 (30,977 sq mi)[4]
77,901 km2 (30,078 sq mi)[4]
 2022 census
Neutral increase 5,436,600
70/km2 (181.3/sq mi)[5]
GVA2021 estimate
 • Total£149.9 billion
 • Per capita£27,361[6]
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
£181.0 billion
 Per capita
Gini (2019-22)Positive decrease 31[8]
HDI (2021)Increase 0.921[9]
very high
CurrencyPound sterling (GBP; £)
Time zoneUTC+0 (Greenwich Mean Time)
 Summer (DST)
UTC+1 (British Summer Time)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (AD)
Driving sideleft
Calling code+44
ISO 3166 codeGB-SCT
  1. ^ ONS Standard Area Measurement, 'Total Extent of the Realm'
  2. ^ ONS Standard Area Measurement, 'Area to Mean High Water Excluding Inland Water'
  3. ^ .scot is not a ccTLD, but a GeoTLD, open to use by all with a connection to Scotland or Scottish culture. .uk as part of the United Kingdom is also used. ISO 3166-1 is GB, but .gb is unused.
  4. ^ Scottish Government figures include oil and gas revenues generated beyond UK territorial waters in the country's continental shelf region

The Kingdom of Scotland emerged in the 9th century, from the merging of the Gaelic Kingdom of Dál Riata and the Kingdom of the Picts, and continued to exist as an independent sovereign state until 1707. In 1603, James VI inherited England and Ireland, forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain,[15][16] with the Parliament of Scotland subsumed into the Parliament of Great Britain. In 1999, a Scottish Parliament was re-established, in the form of a devolved unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, having authority over many areas of domestic policy.[17] The head of the Scottish Government is the first minister.[18] Scotland is represented in the United Kingdom Parliament by 59 members of parliament (MPs). Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council,[19] the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly[20] and the Heads of Government Council.[21]

Within Scotland, the monarchy has continued to use various styles, titles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland. The legal system within Scotland has also remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland; Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in both public and private law.[22] The continued existence of legal, educational, religious and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 incorporating union with England.[23]