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Saxony (German: Sachsen [ˈzaksn̩] (Loudspeaker.svglisten); Upper Saxon: Saggsn; Upper Sorbian: Sakska), officially the Free State of Saxony (German: Freistaat Sachsen [ˈfʁaɪʃtaːt ˈzaksn̩]; Upper Saxon: Freischdaad Saggsn; Upper Sorbian: Swobodny stat Sakska), is a landlocked state of Germany, bordering the states of Brandenburg, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia, Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland and the Czech Republic. Its capital is Dresden, and its largest city is Leipzig. Saxony is the tenth largest of Germany's sixteen states, with an area of 18,413 square kilometres (7,109 sq mi), and the sixth most populous, with more than 4 million inhabitants.

Quick facts: Free State of Saxony Freistaat Sachsen&nb...
Free State of Saxony
Freistaat Sachsen (German)
Freischdaad Saggsn (Upper Saxon)
Swobodny stat Sakska (Upper Sorbian)
Anthem: Sachsenlied [de]
Coordinates: 51°1′37″N 13°21′32″E
Largest cityLeipzig
  BodyLandtag of the Free State of Saxony
  Minister-PresidentMichael Kretschmer (CDU)
  Governing partiesCDU / Greens / SPD
  Bundesrat votes4 (of 69)
  Bundestag seats38 (of 736)
  Total18,415.66 km2 (7,110.33 sq mi)
 (31 December 2018)
  Density220/km2 (570/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
ISO 3166 codeDE-SN
GRP (nominal)€128 billion (2019)[1]
GRP per capita€31,000 (2019)
HDI (2018)0.938[2]
very high · 9th of 16

The term Saxony has been in use for more than a millennium. It was used for the medieval Duchy of Saxony, the Electorate of Saxony of the Holy Roman Empire, the Kingdom of Saxony, and twice for a republic. The first Free State of Saxony was established in 1918 as a constituent state of the Weimar Republic. After World War II, it was under Soviet occupation before it became part of the communist East Germany and was abolished by the government in 1952. Following German reunification, the Free State of Saxony was reconstituted with enlarged borders in 1990 and became one of the five new states of the Federal Republic of Germany.

The area of the modern state of Saxony should not be confused with Old Saxony, the area inhabited by Saxons. Old Saxony corresponds roughly to the modern German states of Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, and the Westphalian part of North Rhine-Westphalia.