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Country in Central Europe / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Poland (Polish: Polska [ˈpɔlska] ), officially the Republic of Poland,[lower-alpha 1] is a country in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative provinces called voivodeships, covering an area of 312,700 km2 (120,700 sq mi).[12][13] Poland has a population of over 38 million and is the fifth most populous member state of the European Union. Warsaw is the nation's capital and largest metropolis. Other major cities include Kraków, Wrocław, Łódź, Poznań, Gdańsk, and Szczecin.

Quick facts: Republic of PolandRzeczpospolita Polska ...
Republic of Poland
Anthem: "Poland Is Not Yet Lost"
Location of Poland (dark green)

 in Europe (green & dark grey)
 in the European Union (green)   [Legend]

and largest city
52°13′N 21°02′E
Official languagePolish[1]
Ethnic groups
  • 98% Poles
  • 2% other / undeclared
  • 6.9% no religion
  • 0.4% other
  • 20.5% unanswered
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
Andrzej Duda
Mateusz Morawiecki
14 April 966
18 April 1025
1 July 1569
24 October 1795
11 November 1918
17 September 1939
22 July 1944
31 December 1989[4]
312,700 km2 (120,700 sq mi)[5][6] (69th)
 Water (%)
1.48 (2015)[7]
 2022 census
Neutral decrease 38,036,118[8] (38th)
122/km2 (316.0/sq mi) (75th)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
Increase $1.712 trillion[9] (21st)
 Per capita
Increase $45,538[9] (40th)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
Increase $842.172 billion[9] (21st)
 Per capita
Increase $22,393[9] (44th)
Gini (2020)Positive decrease 27.2[10]
HDI (2021)Increase 0.876[11]
very high · 34th
CurrencyZłoty (PLN)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 Summer (DST)
Date (CE)
Driving sideright
Calling code+48
ISO 3166 codePL

Poland has a temperate transitional climate, and its territory traverses the Central European Plain, extending from the Baltic Sea in the north to the Sudetes and Carpathian Mountains in the south. The longest Polish river is the Vistula, and Poland's highest point is Mount Rysy, situated in the Tatra mountain range of the Carpathians. The country is bordered by Lithuania and Russia to the northeast,[lower-alpha 2] Belarus and Ukraine to the east, Slovakia and the Czech Republic to the south, and Germany to the west. It also shares maritime boundaries with Denmark and Sweden.

Prehistoric human activity on Polish soil dates to c.10,000 BCE. Culturally diverse throughout late antiquity, in the early medieval period the region became inhabited by tribal Polans who gave Poland its name. The establishment of statehood in 966 coincided with the conversion of a pagan ruler of the Polans to Christianity under the auspices of the Roman Church. The Kingdom of Poland emerged in 1025, and in 1569 cemented its long-standing association with Lithuania, thus forming the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. At the time, the Commonwealth was one of the great powers of Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which on 3 May 1791 adopted Europe's first modern constitution.

With the passing of the prosperous Polish Golden Age, the country was partitioned by neighbouring states at the end of the 18th century. Poland regained its independence in 1918 as the Second Polish Republic and successfully defended it in the Polish–Soviet War from 1919 to 1921. In September 1939, the invasion of Poland by Germany and the Soviet Union marked the beginning of World War II, which resulted in the Holocaust and millions of Polish casualties. As a member of the Communist Bloc in the global Cold War, the Polish People's Republic was a founding signatory of the Warsaw Pact. Through the emergence and contributions of the Solidarity movement, the communist government was dissolved and Poland re-established itself as a democratic state in 1989.

Poland is a parliamentary republic, with its bicameral legislature comprising the Sejm and the Senate. It is a developed market and a high-income economy. Considered a middle power, Poland has the sixth largest economy in the European Union by GDP (nominal) and the fifth largest by GDP (PPP). It provides a very high standard of living, safety, and economic freedom, as well as free university education and a universal health care system. The country has 17 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, 15 of which are cultural. Poland is a founding member state of the United Nations, as well as a member of the World Trade Organization, OECD, NATO, and the European Union (including the Schengen Area).

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