The Buddha

Siddhartha Gautama, founder of Buddhism / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Siddhartha Gautama,[lower-alpha 5] most commonly referred to as the Buddha,[lower-alpha 6][lower-alpha 7] was a wandering ascetic and religious teacher who lived in South Asia during the 6th or 5th century BCE[4][5][6][lower-alpha 3] and founded Buddhism.

Quick facts: The Buddha, Personal, Born, Died, Resting pla...
The Buddha
Statue of the Buddha, preaching his first sermon at Sarnath. Gupta period, ca. 475 CE. Archaeological Museum Sarnath (B(b) 181).[lower-alpha 1]
Siddhartha Gautama

c.563 BCE or 480 BCE
Lumbini, Shakya Republic (according to Buddhist tradition)[lower-alpha 2]
Diedc.483 BCE or 400 BCE (aged 80)[1][2][3][lower-alpha 3]
Kushinagar, Malla Republic (according to Buddhist tradition)[lower-alpha 4]
Resting placeCremated; ashes divided among followers
Known forFounding Buddhism
Other namesGautama Buddha
Shakyamuni ("Sage of the Shakyas")
Senior posting
PredecessorKassapa Buddha
Sanskrit name
SanskritSiddhārtha Gautama
Pali name
PaliSiddhattha Gotama

According to Buddhist tradition, he was born in Lumbini, in what is now Nepal,[lower-alpha 2] to royal parents of the Shakya clan, but renounced his home life to live as a wandering ascetic (Sanskrit: śramaṇa).[7][lower-alpha 8] After leading a life of begging, asceticism, and meditation, he attained enlightenment at Bodh Gaya in what is now India. The Buddha thereafter wandered through the lower Indo-Gangetic Plain, teaching and building a monastic order. He taught a Middle Way between sensual indulgence and severe asceticism,[8] leading to Nirvana,[lower-alpha 9] that is, freedom from ignorance, craving, rebirth, and suffering. His teachings are summarized in the Noble Eightfold Path, a training of the mind that includes ethical training and meditative practices such as sense restraint, kindness toward others, mindfulness, and jhana/dhyana (meditation proper). He died in Kushinagar, attaining paranirvana.[lower-alpha 4] The Buddha has since been venerated by numerous religions and communities across Asia.

A couple of centuries after his death, he came to be known by the title Buddha, which means "Awakened One" or "Enlightened One."[9] His teachings were compiled by the Buddhist community in the Vinaya, his codes for monastic practice, and the Sutta Piṭaka, a compilation of teachings based on his discourses. These were passed down in Middle Indo-Aryan dialects through an oral tradition.[10][11] Later generations composed additional texts, such as systematic treatises known as Abhidharma, biographies of the Buddha, collections of stories about his past lives known as Jataka tales, and additional discourses, i.e., the Mahayana sutras.[12][13]