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British Overseas Territory on the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Gibraltar (/ɪˈbrɔːltər/ jih-BRAWL-tər, Spanish: [xiβɾalˈtaɾ]) is a British Overseas Territory[lower-alpha 1] and city[7] located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.[8][9] It has an area of 6.7 km2 (2.6 sq mi) and is bordered to the north by Spain (Campo de Gibraltar). The landscape is dominated by the Rock of Gibraltar, at the foot of which is a densely populated town area, home to some 32,688 people (2022 estimate), primarily Gibraltarians.[10]

Quick facts: Gibraltar, Sovereign state, Capture from Spai...
"Montis Insignia Calpe" (Latin)
(English: "Badge of the Rock of Gibraltar")[1]
Anthem: "God Save the King"
Song: "Gibraltar Anthem"
Location of Gibraltar in Europe
Location of Gibraltar (dark green)
United Kingdom shown in pale green
Map of Gibraltar
Map of Gibraltar
Sovereign stateFlag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg United Kingdom
Capture from Spain4 August 1704
Cession to Great Britain11 April 1713
National Day10 September 1967
Accession to EEC1 January 1973
Withdrawal from the EU31 January 2020
Official languagesEnglish
Spoken languages
GovernmentDevolved representative democratic parliamentary dependency under a constitutional monarchy
Charles III
Sir David Steel
Fabian Picardo
Carmen Gomez[2]
Government of the United Kingdom
Leo Docherty
6.8 km2 (2.6 sq mi)
 Water (%)
Highest elevation
426 m (1,398 ft)
 2020 estimate
34,003[3] (220th)
 2022 census
5,000/km2 (12,949.9/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2013 estimate
£1.64 billion (not ranked)
 Per capita
£50,941 (not ranked)
GDP (nominal)estimate
£2.441 billion[4]
HDI (2018)0.961[5]
very high · 3rd
CurrencyPound sterling
Gibraltar pound (£) (GIP)
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST)
UTC+02:00 (CEST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+350
GX11 1AA
An aerial view
Gibraltar from the air, looking north-west

In 1704, Anglo-Dutch forces captured Gibraltar from Spain during the War of the Spanish Succession. The territory was ceded to Great Britain in perpetuity under the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. It became an important base for the Royal Navy, particularly during the Napoleonic Wars and World War II, as it controlled the narrow entrance and exit to the Mediterranean Sea, the Strait of Gibraltar, which is only 14.3 km (8.9 mi) wide. This choke point remains strategically important, with half the world's seaborne trade passing through it.[11][12][13] Gibraltar's economy is based largely on tourism, online gambling, financial services, and bunkering.[14][15][16][17] With one of the world's lowest unemployment rates, the largest part of the labour force are resident in Spain or non-Gibraltarians, especially in the private sector.

The sovereignty of Gibraltar is a point of contention in Anglo-Spanish relations, as Spain asserts a claim to the territory.[15][18] Gibraltarians overwhelmingly rejected proposals for Spanish sovereignty in a 1967 referendum, and for shared sovereignty in a 2002 referendum. Nevertheless, Gibraltar maintains close economic and cultural links with Spain, with many Gibraltarians speaking Spanish as well as a local dialect known as Llanito.

Since Brexit, Gibraltar is not a member of the European Union but negotiations are under way to have it participate in the Schengen Agreement to facilitate border movements between Gibraltar and Spain.[19] As of March 2023, talks seem deadlocked.[20]

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