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Hindustani language

Indo-Aryan language spoken in India and Pakistan / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Hindustani (/ˌhɪndʊˈstɑːni/; Devanagari: हिन्दुस्तानी,[10][lower-alpha 2] Hindustānī; Perso-Arabic:[lower-alpha 3] ہِنْدُوسْتانی, Hindustānī, lit.'of Hindustan')[11][3][4] is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in Deccan, Northern India and Pakistan, and used as a lingua franca in both countries.[12][13] Hindustani is a pluricentric language with two standard registers, known as Hindi (which is greatly influenced by Sanskrit) and Urdu (deeply influenced by Persian and Arabic). Thus, it is also called Hindi–Urdu.[14][15][16] Colloquial registers of the language fall on a spectrum between these standards.[17][18] In modern times, a third variety of Hindustani with significant English influences has also appeared which is sometimes called Hinglish.[19][20][21][22][23]

Quick facts: Hindustani, Pronunciation, Native to, Re...
  • हिन्दुस्तानी
  • ہِنْدُوسْتانی
The word Hindustani in the Devanagari and Perso-Arabic (Nastaliq) scripts
PronunciationIPA: [ɦɪn̪d̪ʊst̪äːniː]
Native toIndia and Pakistan
RegionWestern UP/Delhi (North India),
Deccan (South India),
Native speakers
L1 speakers: c.250 million (2011 & 2017 censuses)[2]
L2 speakers: ~500 million (1999–2016)[2]
Early forms
Standard forms
Indian Signing System (ISS)[6]
Official status
Official language in
Regulated by
Language codes
ISO 639-1hi – Hindi
ur – Urdu
ISO 639-2hin – Hindi
urd – Urdu
ISO 639-3Either:
hin  Hindi
urd  Urdu
Linguasphere59-AAF-qa to -qf
Areas (red) where Hindustani (Delhlavi or Kauravi) is the native language

The concept of a Hindustani language as a "unifying language" or "fusion language" that could transcend communal and religious divisions across the subcontinent was endorsed by Mahatma Gandhi,[24] as it was not seen to be associated with either the Hindu or Muslim communities as was the case with Hindi and Urdu respectively, and it was also considered a simpler language for people to learn.[25][26] The conversion from Hindi to Urdu (or vice versa) is generally achieved just by transliteration between the two scripts, instead of translation which is generally only required for religious and literary texts.[27]

Some scholars trace the language's first written poetry, in the form of Old Hindi, to as early as 769 AD.[28] However this view is not generally accepted.[29][30][31] During the period of the Delhi Sultanate, which covered most of today's India, eastern Pakistan, southern Nepal and Bangladesh[32] and which resulted in the contact of Hindu and Muslim cultures, the Sanskrit and Prakrit base of Old Hindi became enriched with loanwords from Persian, evolving into the present form of Hindustani.[33][34][35][36][37][38] The Hindustani vernacular became an expression of Indian national unity during the Indian Independence movement,[39][40] and continues to be spoken as the common language of the people of the northern Indian subcontinent,[41] which is reflected in the Hindustani vocabulary of Bollywood films and songs.[42][43]

The language's core vocabulary is derived from Prakrit (a descendant of Sanskrit),[18][28][44][45] with substantial loanwords from Persian and Arabic (via Persian).[46][47][28][48] It is often written in the Devanagari script or the Arabic-derived Urdu script in the case of Hindi and Urdu respectively, with romanisation increasingly employed in modern times as a neutral script.[49][50]

As of 2022, Hindi and Urdu together constitute the 3rd-most-spoken language in the world after English and Mandarin, with 833.5 million native and second-language speakers, according to Ethnologue,[51] though this includes millions who self-reported their language as 'Hindi' on the Indian census but speak a number of other Hindi languages than Hindustani.[52] The total number of Hindi–Urdu speakers was reported to be over 300 million in 1995, making Hindustani the third- or fourth-most spoken language in the world.[53][28]

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