Indonesian National Revolution

1945–49 Indonesian conflict and diplomatic struggle against Dutch rule / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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The Indonesian National Revolution, or the Indonesian War of Independence, was an armed conflict and diplomatic struggle between the Republic of Indonesia and the Dutch Empire and an internal social revolution during postwar and postcolonial Indonesia. It took place between Indonesia's declaration of independence in 1945 and the Netherlands' transfer of sovereignty over the Dutch East Indies to the Republic of the United States of Indonesia at the end of 1949.

Quick facts: Indonesian National Revolution, Date, Locatio...
Indonesian National Revolution
Part of the aftermath of the Second World War and Decolonisation of Asia
Clockwise from top right:
Date17 August 1945 – 27 December 1949

Indonesia Indonesia

Supported by:
Flag_of_Australia_%28converted%29.svg Australia[lower-alpha 1][4]
Flag_of_the_United_States_%281912-1959%29.svg United States[lower-alpha 2][5]
Flag_of_India.svg India[lower-alpha 3][6]

Flag_of_the_Netherlands.svg Netherlands[lower-alpha 4]

Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg United Kingdom[lower-alpha 6]

Flag_of_Japan_%281870%E2%80%931999%29.svg Japan[lower-alpha 6]

Internal Conflict:
Flag_of_Islamic_State_of_Indonesia.svg Darul Islam

Flag_of_the_Communist_Party_of_Indonesia.svg People's Democratic Front
Commanders and leaders
Flag_of_Indonesia.svg Sukarno
Flag_of_Indonesia.svg Mohammad Hatta
Flag_of_Indonesia.svg Sudirman
and others...

Flag_of_the_Netherlands.svg H. J. van Mook
Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg Louis Mountbatten

Flag_of_Islamic_State_of_Indonesia.svg Sekarmadji Kartosoewirjo Executed
Flag_of_Islamic_State_of_Indonesia.svg Abdul Kahar Muzakkar  

Flag_of_the_Communist_Party_of_Indonesia.svg Musso  
Flag_of_the_Communist_Party_of_Indonesia.svg Amir Sjarifuddin Executed
  • Republican Army: 150,000[7]
  • Youth volunteers: 100,000[8]
  • Japanese volunteers: 903[9]
  • Indian defectors: 600[10]

  • Netherlands: 180,000

KNIL: 65,000[11]

  • United Kingdom: 60,000[12]
  • Japan: 35,000[12]
Casualties and losses
  • Indonesia: (civilian and combatants): between 25,000 and 100,000 dead[13][14][15]
  • Japanese volunteers: 531 dead[9]
  • Indian defectors: 525 dead[10]
  • Netherlands: 4,585 dead[16]
  • United Kingdom: 980 dead[17]
  • Japan: 1,057 dead[18]

The four-year struggle involved sporadic but bloody armed conflict, internal Indonesian political and communal upheavals, and two major international diplomatic interventions. Dutch military forces (and, for a while, the forces of the World War II allies) were able to control the major towns, cities and industrial assets in Republican heartlands on Java and Sumatra but could not control the countryside. By 1949, international pressure on the Netherlands, the United States threatening to cut off all economic aid for World War II rebuilding efforts to the Netherlands and the partial military stalemate became such that the Netherlands transferred sovereignty over the Dutch East Indies to the Republic of the United States of Indonesia.[19]

The revolution marked the end of the colonial administration of the Dutch East Indies, except for New Guinea. It also significantly changed ethnic castes as well as reducing the power of many of the local rulers (raja). It did not significantly improve the economic or political fortunes of the majority of the population, although a few Indonesians were able to gain a larger role in commerce.[20]