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Country in Southeast Asia and Oceania / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Indonesia,[lower-alpha 1] officially the Republic of Indonesia (Indonesian: Republik Indonesia),[lower-alpha 2] is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It consists of over 17,000 islands, including Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi, and parts of Borneo and New Guinea. Indonesia is the world's largest archipelagic state and the 14th-largest country by area, at 1,904,569 square kilometres (735,358 square miles). With around 279 million people, Indonesia is the world's fourth-most populous country and the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population.

Quick facts: Republic of IndonesiaRepublik Indonesia ...
Republic of Indonesia
Republik Indonesia (Indonesian)
Bhinneka Tunggal Ika (Old Javanese)
"Unity in Diversity"
Anthem: Indonesia Raya
"Great Indonesia"
National ideology:
(lit.'Five principles')
and largest city
6°10′S 106°49′E
Official languageIndonesian
Regional languagesOver 700 languages[1]
Ethnic groups
Over 1,300 ethnic groups[2]
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic
Joko Widodo
Ma'ruf Amin
Puan Maharani
Muhammad Syarifuddin
LegislaturePeople's Consultative Assembly (MPR)
Regional Representative Council (DPD)
People's Representative Council (DPR)
from the Netherlands
17 August 1945
27 December 1949
1,904,569[4] km2 (735,358 sq mi) (14th)
 Q2 2023 estimate
Neutral increase 279,118,866[5] (4th)
 2020 census
143/km2 (370.4/sq mi) (90th)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
Increase $4.393 trillion[7] (7th)
 Per capita
Increase $15,835[7] (98th)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
Increase $1.417 trillion[7] (16th)
 Per capita
Increase $5,108[7] (112th)
Gini (2022)Steady 37.9[8]
HDI (2021)Decrease 0.705[9]
high · 114th
CurrencyIndonesian rupiah (Rp) (IDR)
Time zoneUTC+7 to +9 (various)
Date formatDD/MM/YYYY
Driving sideleft
Calling code+62
ISO 3166 codeID

Indonesia is a presidential republic with an elected legislature. It has 38 provinces, of which nine have special status. The country's capital, Jakarta, is the world's second-most populous urban area. Indonesia shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and the eastern part of Malaysia, as well as maritime borders with Singapore, Vietnam, Thailand, the Philippines, Australia, Palau, and India. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support one of the world's highest levels of biodiversity.

The Indonesian archipelago has been a valuable region for trade since at least the seventh century when the Srivijaya and later Majapahit Kingdoms traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign influences from the early centuries, and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Muslim traders later brought Islam, and European powers fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Following three and a half centuries of Dutch colonialism, Indonesia secured its independence after World War II. Indonesia's history has since been turbulent, with challenges posed by natural disasters, corruption, separatism, a democratisation process, and periods of rapid economic change.

Indonesia consists of thousands of distinct native ethnic and hundreds of linguistic groups, with Javanese being the largest. A shared identity has developed with the motto "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" ("Unity in Diversity" literally, "many, yet one"), defined by a national language, cultural diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. The economy of Indonesia is the world's 16th-largest by nominal GDP and the 7th-largest by PPP. It is the world's third-largest democracy, a regional power and is considered a middle power in global affairs. The country is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the United Nations, World Trade Organization, G20, and a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, East Asia Summit, D-8 and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.

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