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State in Western India / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Maharashtra (/məhɑːˈrɑːʃtrə/; Marathi: [məhaɾaːʂʈɾə] , abbr. MH or Maha) is a state in the western peninsular region of India occupying a substantial portion of the Deccan Plateau. It is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west, the Indian states of Karnataka and Goa to the south, Telangana to the southeast and Chhattisgarh to the east, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh to the north, and the Indian union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu to the northwest.[17] Maharashtra is the second-most populous state in India and the third-most populous country subdivision globally.

Quick facts: Maharashtra, Country, Region, , Before was...
State of Maharashtra
Ajanta Caves
Ellora Caves
Shaniwaarwada, Pune
Hazur Sahib, Nanded
CST Mumbai
The Gateway of India, Mumbai
Etymology: "mahā" (Great) and Sanskritized form of "Ratta dynasty"
"Gateway of India"
Pratipaccandralēkhēva vardhiṣṇurviśva vanditā Mahārāṣṭrasya rājyasya mudrā bhadrāya rājatē
(The glory of Maharashtra will grow like the first day moon. It will be worshipped by the world and will shine only for the well-being of people)
Anthem: Jai Jai Maharashtra Maza
(Victory to My Maharashtra!)[1]
The map of India showing Maharashtra
Location of Maharashtra in India
Coordinates: 18.97°N 72.82°E / 18.97; 72.82
CountryFlag_of_India.svg India
RegionWest India
Before wasState of Bombay (1950–1960)
(by bifurcation)
1 May 1960
Nagpur (winter)
Largest cityMumbai
Largest metroMumbai Metropolitan Region
Districts36 (6 divisions)
  BodyGovernment of Maharashtra
  GovernorRamesh Bais
  Chief ministerEknath Sambhaji Shinde (SHS)
  Deputy chief ministerDevendra Gangadharrao Fadnavis (BJP)
Ajit Anantrao Pawar (NCP (Rebels))
State LegislatureBicameral
Maharashtra Legislature
  CouncilMaharashtra Legislative Council (78 seats)
  AssemblyMaharashtra Legislative Assembly (288 seats)
National ParliamentParliament of India
  Rajya Sabha19 seats
  Lok Sabha48 seats
High CourtBombay High Court Nagpur High Court
  Total307,713 km2 (118,809 sq mi)
  Length605 km (376 mi)
  Width870 km (540 mi)
Elevation100 m (300 ft)
Highest elevation1,646 m (5,400 ft)
Lowest elevation−1 m (−3 ft)
  TotalNeutral increase 112,374,333
  Density370/km2 (1,000/sq mi)
  Official scriptDevanagari script
  Total (2023–24)Increase38.79 trillion (US$490 billion)
  Per capitaIncrease308,890 (US$3,900) (14th)
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
ISO 3166 codeIN-MH
Vehicle registrationMH
HDI (2022)Increase 0.750 High[9] (9th)
Literacy (2017)Neutral increase 84.8% (14th)
Sex ratio (2021)966/1000 [10] (23rd)
Symbols of Maharashtra
SongJai Jai Maharashtra Maza
(Victory to My Maharashtra!)[11]
Foundation dayMaharashtra Day
BirdYellow-footed green pigeon[12]
ButterflyBlue Mormon[13]
FishSilver Pomfret
MammalIndian giant squirrel[12]
TreeMango tree[12][15]
State highway mark
State highway of Maharashtra
List of Indian state symbols
^The State of Bombay was split into two States i.e. Maharashtra and Gujarat by the Bombay Reorganisation Act 1960[16]
†† Common high court

The state is divided into 6 divisions and 36 districts, with the state capital being Mumbai, the most populous urban area in India, and Nagpur serving as the winter capital.[18] The Godavari and Krishna are the two major rivers in the state and forests cover 16.47 per cent of the state's geographical area. The state is home to six UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Ajanta Caves, Ellora Caves, Elephanta Caves, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus), The Victorian Gothic and Art Deco Ensembles of Mumbai and The Western Ghats, a heritage site made up of 39 individual properties of which 4 are in Maharashtra.[19][20] The State is the single largest contributor to India's economy with a share of 14 per cent in all-India nominal GDP.[21][22][23] The economy of Maharashtra is the largest in India, with a gross state domestic product (GSDP) of 35.27 trillion (US$440 billion) and GSDP per capita of 242,247 (US$3,000).[7] The service sector dominates the state's economy, accounting for 69.3 per cent of the value of the output of the country. Although agriculture accounts for 12 per cent of the state GDP, it employs nearly half the population of the state.

Maharashtra is one of the most industrialised states in India. The state's capital, Mumbai, is India's financial and commercial capital.[24] India's largest stock exchange Bombay Stock Exchange, the oldest in Asia, is located in the city, as is National Stock Exchange, which is the second largest stock exchange in India and one of world's largest derivatives exchanges. The state has played a significant role in the country's social and political life and is widely considered a leader in terms of agricultural and industrial production, trade and transport, and education.[25] Maharashtra is the ninth-highest ranking among Indian states in the human development index.[26]

The region that encompasses the state has a history going back many millennia. Notable dynasties that ruled the region include the Asmakas, the Mauryas, the Satavahanas, the Western Satraps, the Abhiras, the Vakatakas, the Chalukyas, the Rashtrakutas, the Western Chalukyas, the Seuna Yadavas, the Khaljis, the Tughlaqs, the Bahamanis and the Mughals. In the early nineteenth century, the region was divided beween the Dominions of the Peshwa in the Maratha Confederacy and the Nizamate of Hyderabad. After two wars and the proclamation of the Indian Empire, the region became a part of the Bombay Province, the Berar Province and the Central Provinces of India under direct British rule and the Deccan States Agency under Crown suzerainty. Between 1950 and 1956, the Bombay Province became the Bombay State in the Indian Union, and Berar, the Deccan states and the Gujarat states were merged into the Bombay State. On 1 May 1960, the State of Bombay was bifurcated into the State of Maharasthra and State of Gujarat after a long struggle for special state for Marathi language speaking people through Samyukta Maharashtra Movement (transl.United Maharashtra movement).

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