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Archaeological site in Greece / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Mycenae (/mˈsn/ my-SEE-nee;[2] Ancient Greek: Μυκῆναι or Μυκήνη, Mykē̂nai or Mykḗnē) is an archaeological site near Mykines in Argolis, north-eastern Peloponnese, Greece. It is located about 120 kilometres (75 miles) south-west of Athens; 11 kilometres (7 miles) north of Argos; and 48 kilometres (30 miles) south of Corinth. The site is 19 kilometres (12 miles) inland from the Saronic Gulf and built upon a hill rising 900 feet (274 metres) above sea level.[3]

Quick facts: Location, Coordinates, Type, History, Founded...
The Lion Gate and example of Cyclopean masonry at Mycenae
Mycenae is located in Greece
Shown within Greece
LocationArgolis, Greece
Coordinates37°43′49″N 22°45′27″E
Founded1350-1200 BC[1]
PeriodsBronze Age
CulturesMycenaean Greece
EventsLate Bronze Age collapse
Site notes
ArchaeologistsFrancesco Grimani
ConditionPartly buried
Official nameArchaeological Sites of Mycenae and Tiryns
Criteriai, ii, iii, iv, vi
Designated1999 (23rd session)
Reference no.941
RegionEurope and North America

In the second millennium BC, Mycenae was one of the major centres of Greek civilization, a military stronghold which dominated much of southern Greece, Crete, the Cyclades and parts of southwest Anatolia. The period of Greek history from about 1600 BC to about 1100 BC is called Mycenaean in reference to Mycenae. At its peak in 1350 BC, the citadel and lower town had a population of 30,000 and an area of 32 hectares.[4]

The first correct identification of Mycenae in modern literature was in 1700, during a survey conducted by the Venetian engineer Francesco Vandeyk on behalf of Francesco Grimani, the Provveditore Generale of the Kingdom of the Morea. Vandeyk used Pausanias's description of the Lion Gate to identify the ruins of Mycenae.[5][6]

In 1999, the archeological site of Mycenae was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List, along with the nearby site of Tiryns, because of its historical importance as the center of the Mycenaean civilization, its outstanding architecture, and its testimony to the development of Ancient Greek civilization.[7]

The Lions Gate, the Treasury of Atreus, and the walls of Tiryns are examples of the noteworthy architecture found in Mycenae and Tiryns. These discoveries' structures and layouts exemplify the human creative talent of the time. Greek architecture and urban planning have been significantly influenced by the Mycenaean civilization. Mycenae and Tiryns, which stand as the pinnacle of the early phases of Greek civilization, provided unique witness to political, social, and economic growth during the Mycenaean civilization. The accomplishments of the Mycenaean civilisation in art, architecture, and technology, which inspired European cultures, are also on display at both locations.

These sites are strongly connected to the Homeric epics. The earliest examples of the Greek language are also visible at Mycenae and Tiryn, preserved on linear B tablets.

A stringent legal framework was established to safeguard the integrity of the Mycenae and Tiryns sites against vandalism and other forms of damage and disturbance to the remains. The Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports monitors the two archaeological sites. To maintain the quality and conditions of the Mycenaean and Tiryn sites, archaeological study is conducted methodically and systematically.

The Greek Antiquities Law No. 3028/2002, on the "Conservation of Antiquities and Cultural Heritage in General," governs the preservation and protection of the sites. Ministerial Decree No. 2160 of 1964 created and safeguarded the limits of Mycenae in addition to the sites themselves. The Acropolis and the larger surrounding surroundings are also covered by this ministerial decree's extension of protection. Ministerial Decrees No. 102098/4753 of 1956 and 12613/696 of 1991 both provide protection for the Tiryns archaeological site.[8]