cover image

Greece

Country in Southeast Europe / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Dear Wikiwand AI, let's keep it short by simply answering these key questions:

Can you list the top facts and stats about Greece?

Summarize this article for a 10 year old

SHOW ALL QUESTIONS

Greece,[lower-alpha 1] officially the Hellenic Republic,[lower-alpha 2] is a country in Southeast Europe, located on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula. Greece shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, and Turkey to the east. The Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, and the Sea of Crete and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin, featuring thousands of islands. It has a population of nearly 10.3 million (as of 2024).[11] Athens is the nation's capital and the largest city, followed by Thessaloniki and Patras.

Quick facts: Hellenic RepublicΕλληνική Δημοκρατία (Gr...
Hellenic Republic
Ελληνική Δημοκρατία (Greek)
Ellinikí Dimokratía
Motto: Ελευθερία ή Θάνατος
Elefthería í Thánatos
(English: "Freedom or Death")
Anthem: Ύμνος εις την Ελευθερίαν
Ímnos is tin Eleftherían
(English: "Hymn to Liberty")
EU-Greece_%28orthographic_projection%29.svg
EU-Greece.svg
Location of Greece (dark green)

 in Europe (light green & dark grey)
 in the European Union (light green)

Capital
and largest city
Athens
37°58′N 23°43′E
Official language
and national language
Greek
Religion
(2017)
  • 4% no religion
  • 2% Islam
  • 1% other[1]
Demonym(s)
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
 President
Katerina Sakellaropoulou
Kyriakos Mitsotakis
Konstantinos Tasoulas
LegislatureHellenic Parliament
Establishment history
25 March 1821 (traditional starting date of the Greek War of Independence), 15 January 1822 (official declaration)
3 February 1830
24 July 1974
11 June 1975
Area
 Total
131,957 km2 (50,949 sq mi)[2] (95th)
 Water (%)
1.51 (2015)[3]
Population
 2023 estimate
Decrease 10,413,982 (1 January 2023)[4] (90th)
 2021 census
Decrease 10,432,481[5]
 Density
78.9/km2 (204.4/sq mi) (105th)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
 Total
Increase $416.969 billion[6] (54th)
 Per capita
Increase $39,864[6] (52nd)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
 Total
Increase $242.385 billion[6] (53rd)
 Per capita
Increase $23,173[6] (44th)
Gini (2022)Positive decrease 31.4[7]
medium
HDI (2021)Increase 0.887[8]
very high · 33rd
CurrencyEuro () (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+02:00 (EET)
 Summer (DST)
UTC+03:00 (EEST)
Date formatdd.mm.yyyy (AD)b
Driving sideright
Calling code+30
ISO 3166 codeGR
Internet TLD
  1. The Church of Greece is recognized by the Greek Constitution as the prevailing religion in Greece,[9] and is the only country in the world where Eastern Orthodoxy is clearly recognized as a state religion.[10]
  2. Other short formats: dd-mm-yyyy, dd/mm/yyyy
  3. The .eu domain is also used, as in other European Union member states.
Close

Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilization, being the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, Western literature, historiography, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, theatre, and the Olympic Games. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as poleis (singular polis), which spanned the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. Philip II of Macedon united most of present-day Greece in the fourth century BC, with his son Alexander the Great rapidly conquering much of the known ancient world, from the eastern Mediterranean to northwestern India. The subsequent Hellenistic period saw the height of Greek culture and influence in antiquity. Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming an integral part of the Roman Empire and its continuation, the Byzantine Empire, which was predominantly Greek in culture and language. The Greek Orthodox Church, which emerged in the first century AD, helped shape modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox world. After the Fourth Crusade in 1204, Latin possessions were established in parts of the Greek peninsula, but most of the area fell under Ottoman rule in the mid-15th century. Greece emerged as a modern nation state in 1830, following a war of independence.

Over the first hundred years, the Kingdom of Greece sought territorial expansion, which was mainly achieved in the early 20th century, during the Balkan Wars and up until its Asia Minor Campaign ended with a catastrophic defeat in 1922. The short-lived republic that followed was beset by the ramifications of civil strife and the challenge of resettling refugees from Turkey. In 1936 a royalist dictatorship was established in which Greece fought during WW2 and after that her history was marked by military occupation during the war, a civil war, and military dictatorship. Greece achieved record economic growth from 1950 through the 1970s, allowing it to join the ranks of developed countries. After the Military Regime's fall, democracy was restored in 1974–75, and Greece has since been a parliamentary republic.

Greece is a democratic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, the second largest in the Balkans, where it is an important regional investor. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the tenth member to join the European Communities (precursor to the European Union) and has been part of the eurozone since 2001. It is also a member of numerous other international institutions, including the Council of Europe, NATO, the OECD, the WTO, and the OSCE. Greece has a unique cultural heritage, large tourism industry, and prominent shipping sector. The country's rich historical legacy is reflected in part by its 19 UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

Oops something went wrong: