Punjabi language

Indo-Aryan language native to the Punjab / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Punjabi (/pʌnˈɑːbi/ pun-JAH-bee;[18] Shahmukhi: پنجابی; Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ, Punjabi: [pəɲˈdʒab̆.bi] [19]), sometimes spelled Panjabi,[lower-alpha 4] is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Punjab region of Pakistan and India. It is one of the most widely spoken native languages in the world with approximately 113 million native speakers.[20]

Quick facts: Punjabi, Pronunciation, Native to, Regio...
  • ਪੰਜਾਬੀ
  • پَن٘جابی
'Punjabi' written in Shahmukhi script used in Punjab, Pakistan (top) and Gurmukhi script used in Punjab, India (bottom)
  • Punjabi: [pəɲˈdʒɑb̆.bi]
  • English: /pʌnˈɑːbi/
Native toPakistan and India
Native speakers
113 million (2011–2017)[lower-alpha 1][1]
Early forms
Official status
Official language in
Flag_of_Pakistan.svg Pakistan

Flag_of_India.svg India
Regulated byPunjab Institute of Language, Art & Culture, Punjab, Pakistan
Department of Languages, Punjab, India[17]
Language codes
ISO 639-1pa
ISO 639-2pan
ISO 639-3Either:
pan  Panjabi
pnb  Western Panjabi
Glottologpanj1256  Eastern Panjabi
west2386  Western Panjabi
Geographic distribution of Punjabi language in Pakistan and India.
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Punjabi is the most widely-spoken first language in Pakistan, with 80.5 million native speakers according to the 2017 census, and the 11th most widely-spoken in India, with 31.1 million native speakers, according to the 2011 census. The language is spoken among a significant overseas diaspora, particularly in Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, and the Gulf states.

In Pakistan, Punjabi is written using the Shahmukhi alphabet, based on the Perso-Arabic script; in India, it is written using the Gurmukhi alphabet, based on the Indic scripts. Punjabi is unusual among the Indo-Aryan languages and the broader Indo-European language family in its usage of lexical tone.

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