Sahel

Ecoclimatic and biogeographic transition zone in Africa / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Dear Wikiwand AI, let's keep it short, summarize this topic like I'm... Ten years old or a College student

The Sahel (/səˈhɛl/; Arabic: ساحل sāḥil [ˈsaːħil], "coast, shore")[1] is a region in North Africa. It is defined as the ecoclimatic and biogeographic realm of transition between the Sahara to the north and the Sudanian savanna to the south. Having a hot semi-arid climate, it stretches across the south-central latitudes of Northern Africa between the Atlantic Ocean and the Red Sea.

Quick facts: Sahel, Ecology, Realm, Biome, Borders...
Sahel
Camels trample the soil in the semiarid Sahel as they move to water holes, such as this one in Chad
The Sahel region in Africa: a belt up to 1,000 km (620 mi) wide that spans 5,400 km (3,360 mi) from the Atlantic Ocean to the Red Sea
Ecology
RealmAfrotropical
BiomeTropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Borders
AnimalsCamels, Horses
Bird speciesMigratory birds
Mammal speciesOryx, Gazelles, African buffalo
Geography
Area3,053,200 km2 (1,178,800 sq mi)
Countries
Elevation200 and 400 meters (660 and 1,310 ft)
RiversSenegal, Niger, Nile
Climate typeSemi-arid
Close

The Sahel part of Africa includes – from west to east – parts of northern Senegal, southern Mauritania, central Mali, northern Burkina Faso, the extreme south of Algeria, Niger, the extreme north of Nigeria, Cameroon and Central African Republic, central Chad, central and southern Sudan, the extreme north of South Sudan, Eritrea and Ethiopia.[2]

Historically, the western part of the Sahel was sometimes known as the Sudan region (bilād as-sūdān بلاد السودان "lands of the Sudan"). This belt was located between the Sahara and the coastal areas of West Africa.

There are frequent shortages of food and water due to the dry harsh climate. This is exacerbated by the population increasing rapidly due to very high birthrates across the region; Niger has the world's highest fertility rate.

Jihadist insurgent groups including Boko Haram, Islamic State and al-Qaeda frequently carry out major attacks.