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Senegal

Country on the coast of West Africa / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Senegal,[lower-alpha 6] officially the Republic of Senegal,[lower-alpha 7] is a country in West Africa, on the Atlantic Ocean coastline. Senegal is bordered by Mauritania to the north, Mali to the east, Guinea to the southeast and Guinea-Bissau to the southwest. Senegal nearly surrounds The Gambia, a country occupying a narrow sliver of land along the banks of the Gambia River, which separates Senegal's southern region of Casamance from the rest of the country.[11][12] Senegal also shares a maritime border with Cape Verde. Senegal's economic and political capital is Dakar.

Quick facts: Republic of SenegalRépublique du Sénégal ...
Republic of Senegal
République du Sénégal (French)
Motto: "Un Peuple, Un But, Une Foi" (French)
"One People, One Goal, One Faith"
Anthem: 
"Le Lion rouge"
"The Red Lion"
Location of Senegal (dark green)
Location of Senegal (dark green)
Capital
and largest city
Dakar
14°40′N 17°25′W
Official languagesFrench
National languages
Lingua franca
Ethnic groups
(2019)[4]
Demonym(s)Senegalese
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic[5]
 President
Macky Sall
Amadou Ba
Amadou Mame Diop
LegislatureNational Assembly
Independence
 Republic established
25 November 1957
 from France[lower-alpha 4]
4 April 1960
 Withdrawal from
the Mali Federation
20 August 1960
 from France[lower-alpha 5]
20 June 1960
 as Senegal
22 September 1960
 dissolution of the Senegambia Confederation
30 September 1989
Area
 Total
196,722[4] km2 (75,955 sq mi) (86th)
 Water (%)
2.1
Population
 2023 estimate
18,384,660[4] (67th)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
 Total
Increase $78.547 billion[6] (106th)
 Per capita
Increase $4,324[6] (156th)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
 Total
Increase $31.141 billion[6] (111th)
 Per capita
Increase $1,714[6] (157th)
Gini (2011)40.3[7]
medium
HDI (2021)Decrease 0.511[8]
low · 170th
CurrencyWest African CFA franc (XOF)
Time zoneUTC (GMT)
Date formatmm/dd/yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+221
ISO 3166 codeSN
Internet TLD.sn
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Senegal is the westernmost country in the mainland of the Old World, or Afro-Eurasia.[13] It owes its name to the Senegal River, which borders it to the east and north.[14] The climate is typically Sahelian, though there is a rainy season. Senegal covers a land area of almost 197,000 square kilometres (76,000 sq mi) and has a population of around 18 million.[15][16] The state is a unitary presidential republic; since the country's foundation in 1960, it has been recognized as one of the most stable countries on the African continent.[17] According to 2023 V-Dem Democracy indices Senegal is ranked 52nd in electoral democracy worldwide and 4th in electoral democracy in Africa.[18]

The state was formed as part of the independence of French West Africa from French colonial rule. Because of this history, French is the official language, but it is understood by only a minority of the population.[19] Over 30 languages are spoken in Senegal. Wolof is the most widely spoken one, with 80% of the population speaking it as a first or second language,[20] acting as Senegal's lingua franca alongside French. Like other African nations, the country includes a wide mix of ethnic and linguistic communities, with the largest being the Wolof, Fula, and Serer people. Senegalese people are predominantly Muslim.[21]

Senegal is classified as a heavily indebted poor country, with relatively low HDI ranked 170th in the Human Development Index. Most of the population is on the coast and works in agriculture or other food industries; other major industries include mining, tourism, and services.[22] The country does not have notable natural resources, but the basis of its development lies in education, where almost half the state's budget is spent.[23] Senegal is a member state of the African Union, the United Nations, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, and the Community of Sahel-Saharan States. In the world of motor sports, Senegal is known for the Paris-Dakar Rally.[24]

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