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Socialist Republic of Romania

1947–1989 republic in Southeastern Europe / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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The Socialist Republic of Romania (Romanian: Republica Socialistă România, RSR) was a Marxist–Leninist one-party socialist state that existed officially in Romania from 1947 to 1989. From 1947 to 1965, the state was known as the Romanian People's Republic (Republica Populară Romînă, RPR). The country was an Eastern Bloc state and a member of the Warsaw Pact with a dominant role for the Romanian Communist Party enshrined in its constitutions. Geographically, RSR was bordered by the Black Sea to the east, the Soviet Union (via the Ukrainian and Moldavian SSRs) to the north and east, Hungary and Yugoslavia (via SR Serbia) to the west, and Bulgaria to the south.

Quick facts: Romanian People's Republic (1947–1965) Republ...
Romanian People's Republic

Republica Populară Română (1947–1958)

Republica Populară Romînă (1958–1965)

Socialist Republic of Romania
Republica Socialistă România
Motto: Proletari din toate țările, uniți-vă!
("Proletarians of all countries, unite!")
Zdrobite cătușe

Te slăvim, Românie

E scris pe tricolor Unire

Trei culori
The Socialist Republic of Romania in 1989 in dark green; Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, claimed between November and December 1989 but not controlled, in light green
The Socialist Republic of Romania in 1989 in dark green; Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, claimed between November and December 1989[3] but not controlled, in light green
StatusWarsaw Pact and Comecon member
and largest city
Official languagesRomanian
GovernmentUnitary Marxist–Leninist
one-party socialist republic (1947-1971)
Unitary one-party socialist republic under a totalitarian dictatorship (1971-1989)
General Secretary 
Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej
Nicolae Ceaușescu
Head of state 
 1947–1952 (first)
Constantin Ion Parhon
 1967–1989 (last)
Nicolae Ceaușescu
Head of government 
 1947–1952 (first)
Petru Groza
 1982–1989 (last)
Constantin Dăscălescu
LegislatureGreat National Assembly
Historical eraCold War
30 December 1947
13 April 1948
24 September 1952
 Complete independence from Soviet influence
22 April 1964
21 August 1965
22 December 1989[7]
 Name changed to "Romania"
28 December 1989[8]
8 December 1991
HDI (1990 formula)0.863[9]
very high
Calling code40
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Flag_of_Romania.svg Kingdom of Romania
National Salvation Front (Romania) Flag_of_Romania.svg

As World War II ended, Romania, a former Axis member which had overthrown the Axis, was occupied by the Soviet Union as the sole representative of the Allies. On 6 March 1945, after mass demonstrations by communist sympathizers and political pressure from the Soviet representative of the Allied Control Commission, a new pro-Soviet government that included members of the previously outlawed Romanian Workers' Party was installed. Gradually, more members of the Workers' Party and communist-aligned parties gained control of the administration and pre-war political leaders were steadily eliminated from political life. In December 1947, King Michael I was forced to abdicate and the People's Republic of Romania was declared.

At first, Romania's scarce post-war resources were drained by the "SovRoms," new tax-exempt Soviet-Romanian companies that allowed the Soviet Union to control Romania's major sources of income.[10] Another drain was the war reparations paid to the Soviet Union. However, during the 1950s, Romania's communist government began to assert more independence, leading to, for example, the withdrawal of all Soviet troops from Romania by 1958.[11] Overall, from the 1950s to the 1970s, the country exhibited high rates of economic growth and significant improvements in infant mortality, life expectancy, literacy, urbanization, and women's rights, but then stagnated in the 1980s.[12]

In the 1960s and 1970s, Nicolae Ceaușescu became General Secretary of the Communist Party (1965), Chairman of the State Council (1967), and the newly established role of President in 1974. Ceaușescu's denunciation of the 1968 Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia and a brief relaxation in internal repression led to a positive image both at home and in the West. However, rapid economic growth fueled in part by foreign credits gradually gave way to an austerity and political repression that led to the violent fall of his totalitarian government in December 1989.[4][5][6]

Many people were executed or died in custody during communist Romania's existence, most during the Stalinist era of the 1950s. While judicial executions between 1945 and 1964 numbered 137,[13] deaths in custody are estimated in the tens or hundreds of thousands.[14][15][16] Others were arrested for political, economical, or other reasons and suffered imprisonment or torture.

The 1965 Constitution remained in effect after its dissolution and was amended to reflect Romania's transition to democracy. It was replaced by the current constitution on 8 December 1991, after a nationwide referendum abolished the socialist system of government completely and replaced it with a semi-presidential system.