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Country in East Asia / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Taiwan,[upper-roman 2][lower-alpha 12] officially the Republic of China (ROC),[upper-roman 1][lower-alpha 13] is a country[28] in East Asia.[lower-alpha 16] It is located at the junction of the East and South China Seas in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, with the People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. The territories controlled by the ROC consist of 168 islands[lower-alpha 17] with a combined area of 36,193 square kilometres (13,974 square miles).[18][40] The main island of Taiwan, also known as Formosa, has an area of 35,808 square kilometres (13,826 square miles), with mountain ranges dominating the eastern two-thirds and plains in the western third, where its highly urbanized population is concentrated. The capital, Taipei, forms along with New Taipei City and Keelung the largest metropolitan area. With around 23.9 million inhabitants, Taiwan is among the most densely populated countries.

Quick facts: Republic of .plainlist...
Republic of China
Zhōnghuá Mínguó Guógē
"National Anthem of the Republic of China"
Flag anthem: 
Zhōnghuá Míngúo Gúoqígē
"National Flag Anthem of the Republic of China"
National seal:
Seal of the Republic of China
National flower:
Plum blossom
CapitalTaipei[lower-alpha 1][2]
25°04′N 121°31′E
Largest cityNew Taipei City
Official languagesStandard Chinese[lower-alpha 2][5][6][7]
Official scriptTraditional Chinese[8]
National languages[lower-alpha 3]
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential republic[15][16]
Tsai Ing-wen
Lai Ching-te
Chen Chien-jen
You Si-kun
Chen Chu
Hsu Tzong-li
Huang Jong-tsun
LegislatureLegislative Yuan[lower-alpha 7]
c. August 1624[17]
14 June 1661
5 September 1683
 Ceded to the Empire of Japan
17 April 1895[lower-alpha 8]
 Republic of China established
10 October 1911[lower-alpha 9]
 Taiwan and Penghu restored to ROC rule[lower-alpha 10]
25 October 1945
 Current ROC government established
20 May 1948
7 December 1949
36,197 km2 (13,976 sq mi)[18][14]
 1 July 2022 estimate
Neutral increase 23,894,394[19] (56th)
 2010 census
650/km2 (1,683.5/sq mi) (10th)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
Increase $1.685 trillion [21] (20th)
 Per capita
Increase $72,485[21] (15th)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
Decrease $751.930 billion[21] (21st)
 Per capita
Decrease $32,339[21] (30th)
Gini (2017)Negative increase 34.1[22]
HDI (2021)Increase 0.926[lower-alpha 11][23]
very high · 19th
CurrencyNew Taiwan dollar (NT$) (TWD)
Time zoneUTC+8 (National Standard Time)
ISO 3166 codeTW
Internet TLD

Taiwan has been settled for at least 25,000 years. Ancestors of Taiwanese indigenous peoples settled the island around 6,000 years ago. In the 17th century, large-scale Han Chinese immigration began under a Dutch colony and continued under the Kingdom of Tungning, the first predominantly Han Chinese state in Taiwanese history. The island was annexed in 1683 by the Qing dynasty of China and ceded to the Empire of Japan in 1895. The Republic of China, which had overthrown the Qing in 1911, took control following the surrender of Japan in 1945.[lower-alpha 18] Japan renounced sovereignty over Taiwan in 1952. The immediate resumption of the Chinese Civil War resulted in the loss of the Chinese mainland to Communist forces, who established the People's Republic of China and the flight of the ROC central government to Taiwan in 1949. The effective jurisdiction of the ROC has since been limited to Taiwan, Penghu, and smaller islands.

In the early 1960s, Taiwan entered a period of rapid economic growth and industrialization called the "Taiwan Miracle".[41] In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the ROC transitioned from a one-party state under martial law to a multi-party democracy, with democratically elected presidents since 1996. Taiwan's export-oriented industrial economy is the 21st-largest in the world by nominal GDP and the 20th-largest by PPP measures, with a focus on steel, machinery, electronics, and chemicals manufacturing. Taiwan is a developed country.[42][43] It is ranked highly in terms of civil liberties,[44] healthcare,[45] and human development.[lower-alpha 11][23]

The political status of Taiwan is contentious.[50] The ROC no longer represents China as a member of the United Nations after UN members voted in 1971 to recognize the PRC instead.[51] The ROC maintained its claim of being the sole legitimate representative of China and its territory until 1991, when it ceased to regard the CCP as a rebellious group and recognized its jurisdiction over mainland China.[52] Taiwan is claimed by the PRC, which refuses to establish diplomatic relations with countries that recognise the ROC. Taiwan maintains official diplomatic relations with 12 out of 193 UN member states and the Holy See.[53] Many others maintain unofficial diplomatic ties through representative offices and institutions that function as de facto embassies and consulates. International organizations in which the PRC participates either refuse to grant membership to Taiwan or allow it to participate on a non-state basis. Domestically, the major political contention is between parties favoring eventual Chinese unification and promoting a pan-Chinese identity, contrasted with those aspiring to formal international recognition and promoting a Taiwanese identity; into the 21st century, both sides have moderated their positions to broaden their appeal.[54][55] Taiwan is a de facto major non-NATO ally of the United States.[56]

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