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United Baltic Duchy

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The United Baltic Duchy[1] (German: Vereinigtes Baltisches Herzogtum, Latvian: Apvienotā Baltijas hercogiste, Estonian: Balti Hertsogiriik), or alternatively the Grand Duchy of Livonia,[2] was the name proposed during World War I by leaders of the local Baltic German nobility[3] for a new monarchical state that never came into existence. The attempt to establish a new client state of the German Empire on the territory of what is now Latvia and Estonia was made in 1918, during the German occupation of the former Courland, Livonian and Estonian governorates of the Russian Empire which had ceased to exist after the Bolshevik coup in 1917. The unsuccessful proclamation of a pro-German duchy was first made in April 1918, after the Republic of Estonia had already formally declared full independence.

Approximate area of the proposed United Baltic Duchy
A black Nordic cross on a white field
Suggested flag of the United Baltic Duchy

The proposed ideas for the new state included the creation of a Duchy of Courland and Semigallia and of a Duchy of Estonia and Livonia, which would be in personal union with the Kingdom of Prussia.[4]