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Country in Northern Europe / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Estonia,[lower-alpha 1] officially the Republic of Estonia, is a country by the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the sea across from Sweden, to the south by Latvia, and to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia. The territory of Estonia consists of the mainland, the larger islands of Saaremaa and Hiiumaa, and over 2,200 other islands and islets on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea,[7] covering a total area of 45,339 square kilometres (17,505 sq mi). The capital city Tallinn and Tartu are the two largest urban areas of the country. The Estonian language is the indigenous and the official language of Estonia; it is the first language of the majority of its population, as well as the world's second most spoken Finnic language.

Quick facts: Republic of EstoniaEesti Vabariik (Eston...
Republic of Estonia
Eesti Vabariik (Estonian)
Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja rõõm
(English: "My fatherland, my happiness and joy")
Location of Estonia (dark green)– in Europe (green & dark grey)– in the European Union (green)  –  [Legend]
Location of Estonia (dark green)

 in Europe (green & dark grey)
 in the European Union (green)   [Legend]

and largest city
59°25′N 24°45′E
Official languageEstonian
Ethnic groups (2023)
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
Alar Karis
Kaja Kallas
from Russia and Germany
23–24 February 1918
 Joined the League of Nations
22 September 1921
20 August 1991
1 May 2004
45,339 km2 (17,505 sq mi) (129thd)
 Water (%)
 2023 estimate
Neutral increase 1,365,884[2]
 2021 census
30.6/km2 (79.3/sq mi) (148th)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
Increase $61.757 billion[4] (113th)
 Per capita
Increase $46,385 [4] (40th)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
Increase $41.55 billion[4] (102nd)
 Per capita
Increase $31,207[4] (37th)
Gini (2021)Negative increase 30.6[5]
HDI (2021)Increase 0.890[6]
very high · 31st
CurrencyEuro () (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+02:00 (EET)
 Summer (DST)
UTC+03:00 (EEST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+372
ISO 3166 codeEE
  1. ^ Estonia regained its de facto independence in 1991. Throughout the 1940–1941 and 1944–1991 Soviet occupation, Estonia's de jure state continuity was preserved by diplomatic representatives and the government-in-exile.

The land of what is now modern Estonia has been inhabited by Homo sapiens since at least 9,000 BC. The medieval indigenous population of Estonia was one of the last pagan civilisations in Europe to adopt Christianity following the Papal-sanctioned Livonian Crusade in the 13th century.[8] After centuries of successive rule by the Teutonic Order, Denmark, Sweden, and the Russian Empire, a distinct Estonian national identity began to emerge in the mid-19th century. This culminated in the 24 February 1918 Estonian Declaration of Independence from the then warring Russian and German Empires. Democratic throughout most of the interwar period, Estonia declared neutrality at the outbreak of World War II, however the country was repeatedly contested, invaded and occupied, first by the Soviet Union in 1940, then by Nazi Germany in 1941, and was ultimately reoccupied in 1944 by, and annexed into, the USSR as an administrative subunit (Estonian SSR). Throughout the 1944–1991 Soviet occupation,[9] Estonia's de jure state continuity was preserved by diplomatic representatives and the government-in-exile. Following the bloodless Estonian "Singing Revolution" of 1988–1990, the nation's de facto independence from the Soviet Union was restored on 20 August 1991.

Estonia is a developed country, with a high-income advanced economy, ranking 31st (out of 191) in the Human Development Index.[10] The sovereign state of Estonia is a democratic unitary parliamentary republic, administratively subdivided into 15 maakond (counties). With a population of just under 1.4 million, it is one of the least populous members of the European Union, the Eurozone, the OECD, the Schengen Area, and NATO. Estonia has consistently ranked highly in international rankings for quality of life,[11] education,[12] press freedom, digitalisation of public services[13][14] and the prevalence of technology companies.[15]