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Vladivostok (// VLAD-iv-OST-ok; Russian: Владивосто́к, IPA: [vlədʲɪvɐˈstok] i) is the largest city and the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, in the far east of Russia. It is located around the Golden Horn Bay on the Sea of Japan, covering an area of 331.16 square kilometers (127.86 square miles), with a population of 600,871 residents as of 2021. Vladivostok is the second-largest city in the Far Eastern Federal District, as well as the Russian Far East, after Khabarovsk. It is located approximately 45 kilometers (28 mi) from the China–Russia border.
|Federal subject||Primorsky Krai|
|Founded||July 2, 1860|
|City status since||April 22, 1880|
|• Body||City Duma|
|• Head||Konstantin Shestakov|
|• Total||331.16 km2 (127.86 sq mi)|
|Elevation||8 m (26 ft)|
|• Rank||22nd in 2010|
|• Subordinated to||Vladivostok City Under Krai Jurisdiction|
|• Capital of||Primorsky Krai, Vladivostok City Under Krai Jurisdiction|
|• Urban okrug||Vladivostoksky Urban Okrug|
|• Capital of||Vladivostoksky Urban Okrug|
|Time zone||UTC+10 (MSK+7 )|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 423|
|City Day||First Sunday of July|
Shortly after the signing of the Treaty of Aigun between Qing China and the Russian Empire and affirmed by the Convention of Peking – of which it is also known as the Amur Annexation – the city was founded as a Russian military outpost on July 2, 1860. In 1872, the main Russian naval base on the Pacific Ocean was transferred to the city, stimulating its growth. After the outbreak of the Russian Revolution in 1917, Vladivostok was occupied in 1918 by White Russian and Allied forces, the last of whom from the Japanese Empire were not withdrawn until 1922 due to its wider intervention in Siberia; by that time the antirevolutionary White Army forces had promptly collapsed. That same year, the Red Army occupied the city, absorbing the Far Eastern Republic into the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the city became a part of the Russian Federation.
Today, Vladivostok remains the largest Russian port on the Pacific Ocean, and the chief cultural, economic, scientific, and tourism hub of the Russian Far East. As the terminus of the Trans-Siberian Railway, the city was visited by over three million tourists in 2017. The city is the administrative center of the Far Eastern Federal District, and is the home to the headquarters of the Pacific Fleet of the Russian Navy. Due to its geographical position in Asia combined with its Russian architecture, the city has been referred to as "Europe in the Far East". Many foreign consulates and businesses have offices in Vladivostok, and the city hosts the annual Eastern Economic Forum. With a yearly mean temperature of around 5 °C (41 °F) Vladivostok has a cold climate for its mid-latitude coastal setting. This is due to winds from the vast Eurasian landmass in winter, also cooling the ocean temperatures.