Bisphenol A

Chemical compound used in plastics manufacturing / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Quick facts: Names, Identifiers, Properties, Hazards[6]...
Bisphenol A
Preferred IUPAC name
Other names
  • BPA
  • Diphenylolpropane
  • p,p-Isopropylidenebisphenol
  • 2,2-Bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane
  • 2,2-Di(4-phenylol)propane
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.001.133 Edit this at Wikidata
EC Number
  • 201-245-8
RTECS number
  • SL6300000
UN number 2924 2430
  • InChI=1S/C15H16O2/c1-15(2,11-3-7-13(16)8-4-11)12-5-9-14(17)10-6-12/h3-10,16-17H,1-2H3 checkY
  • InChI=1/C15H16O2/c1-15(2,11-3-7-13(16)8-4-11)12-5-9-14(17)10-6-12/h3-10,16-17H,1-2H3
  • Oc1ccc(cc1)C(c2ccc(O)cc2)(C)C
  • CC(C)(c1ccc(cc1)O)c2ccc(cc2)O
Molar mass 228.291 g·mol−1
Appearance White solid
Odor Phenolic, medical
Density 1.217 g/cm3[1]
Melting point 155 °C (311 °F; 428 K)[2]
Boiling point 250–252 °C (482–486 °F; 523–525 K)[2] at 13 torrs (0.017 atm)
0.3 g/L (25 °C)[3]
log P 3.41[4]
Vapor pressure 5×10−6 Pa (25 °C)[5]
GHS labelling:
GHS05: CorrosiveGHS07: Exclamation markGHS08: Health hazardGHS09: Environmental hazard
H317, H318, H335, H360, H411[6]
P201, P202, P261, P273, P302+P352, P304+P340, P305+P351+P338, P308+P313, P333+P313, P363, P403+P233[6]
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
NFPA 704 four-colored diamondHealth 2: Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g. chloroformFlammability 1: Must be pre-heated before ignition can occur. Flash point over 93 °C (200 °F). E.g. canola oilInstability 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g. liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no code
Flash point 227 °C (441 °F; 500 K)[6]
510 °C (950 °F; 783 K)[6]
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical compound primarily used in the manufacturing of various plastics. It is a colourless solid which is soluble in most common organic solvents, but has very poor solubility in water.[3][7] BPA is produced on an industrial scale by the condensation reaction of phenol and acetone. Global production in 2022 was estimated to be in the region of 10 million tonnes.[8]

BPA's largest single application is as a co-monomer in the production of polycarbonates, which accounts for 65–70% of all BPA production.[9][10] The manufacturing of epoxy resins and vinyl ester resins account for 25–30% of BPA use.[9][10] The remaining 5% is used as a major component of several high-performance plastics, and as a minor additive in PVC, polyurethane, thermal paper, and several other materials. It is not a plasticizer,[11] although it is often wrongly labelled as such.

The health effects of BPA have been the subject of prolonged public and scientific debate.[12][13][14] BPA is a xenoestrogen, exhibiting hormone-like properties that mimic the effects of estrogen in the body.[15] Although the effect is very weak,[16] the pervasiveness of BPA-containing materials raises concerns, as exposure is effectively lifelong. Many BPA-containing materials are non-obvious but commonly encountered,[17] and include coatings for the inside of food cans,[18] clothing designs,[19] shop receipts,[20] and dental fillings.[21] BPA has been investigated by public health agencies in many countries, as well as by the World Health Organization.[12] While normal exposure is below the level currently associated with risk, several jurisdictions have taken steps to reduce exposure on a precautionary basis, in particular by banning BPA from baby bottles. There is some evidence that BPA exposure in infants has decreased as a result of this.[22] BPA-free plastics have also been introduced, which are manufactured using alternative bisphenols such as bisphenol S and bisphenol F, but there is also controversy around whether these are actually safer.[23][24][25]

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