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Honduras

Country in Central America / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Honduras,[lower-alpha 1] officially the Republic of Honduras,[lower-alpha 2] is a country in Central America. The republic of Honduras is bordered to the west by Guatemala, to the southwest by El Salvador, to the southeast by Nicaragua, to the south by the Pacific Ocean at the Gulf of Fonseca, and to the north by the Gulf of Honduras, a large inlet of the Caribbean Sea. Its capital and largest city is Tegucigalpa.

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Republic of Honduras
República de Honduras (Spanish)
Motto: 
  • Libre, Soberana e Independiente
  • "Free, Sovereign and Independent"
Anthem: Himno Nacional de Honduras
"National Anthem of Honduras"
Capital
and largest city
Tegucigalpa
14°6′N 87°13′W
Official languagesSpanish
Ethnic groups
(2016)[1]
Religion
(2020)[2]
  • 16.2% No religion
  • 8.1% Other
Demonym(s)
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic
 President
Xiomara Castro
Salvador Nasralla
Luis Redondo
LegislatureNational Congress
Independence
 Declaredb from Spain
15 September 1821
 Declared from the
First Mexican Empire
1 July 1823
 Declared, as Honduras, from the Federal Republic of Central America
5 November 1838
Area
 Total
112,492 km2 (43,433 sq mi) (101st)
Population
 2022 estimate
9,459,440[3] (95th)
 Density
85/km2 (220.1/sq mi) (128th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
 Total
$69.8 billion[4] (108th)
 Per capita
$6,769[4] (134th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
 Total
$30.5 billion[4] (106th)
 Per capita
$2,969[4] (135th)
Gini (2018) 52.1[5]
high
HDI (2021) 0.621[6]
medium · 137th
CurrencyLempira (HNL)
Time zoneUTC−6 (CST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+504
ISO 3166 codeHN
Internet TLD.hn
  1. Mixture of European and American Indian.
  2. As part of the Federal Republic of Central America.
Population estimates explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected, as of July 2007.
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Honduras was home to several important Mesoamerican cultures, most notably the Maya, before the Spanish Colonization in the sixteenth century. The Spanish introduced Catholicism and the now predominant Spanish language, along with numerous customs that have blended with the indigenous culture. Honduras became independent in 1821 and has since been a republic, although it has consistently endured much social strife and political instability, and remains one of the poorest countries in the Western Hemisphere. In 1960, the northern part of what was the Mosquito Coast was transferred from Nicaragua to Honduras by the International Court of Justice.[7]

The nation's economy is primarily agricultural, making it especially vulnerable to natural disasters such as Hurricane Mitch in 1998.[8] The lower class is primarily agriculturally based while wealth is concentrated in the country's urban centers.[9] Honduras has a Human Development Index of 0.625, classifying it as a nation with medium development.[10] When adjusted for income inequality, its Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index is 0.443.[10]

Honduran society is predominantly Mestizo; however, there are also significant American Indian, black and white communities in Honduras.[11] The nation had a relatively high political stability until its 2009 coup and again with the 2017 presidential election.[12]

Honduras spans about 112,492 km2 (43,433 sq mi) and has a population exceeding 10 million.[13][14] Its northern portions are part of the western Caribbean zone, as reflected in the area's demographics and culture. Honduras is known for its rich natural resources, including minerals, coffee, tropical fruit, and sugar cane, as well as for its growing textiles industry, which serves the international market.