Ytterbium

Chemical element, symbol Yb and atomic number 70 / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Ytterbium is a chemical element; it has symbol Yb and atomic number 70. It is a metal, the fourteenth and penultimate element in the lanthanide series, which is the basis of the relative stability of its +2 oxidation state. Like the other lanthanides, its most common oxidation state is +3, as in its oxide, halides, and other compounds. In aqueous solution, like compounds of other late lanthanides, soluble ytterbium compounds form complexes with nine water molecules. Because of its closed-shell electron configuration, its density, melting point and boiling point are much lower than those of most other lanthanides.

Quick facts: Ytterbium, Pronunciation, Appearance, Standar...
Ytterbium, 70Yb
Ytterbium-3.jpg
Ytterbium
Pronunciation/ɪˈtɜːrbiəm/ (ih-TUR-bee-əm)
Appearancesilvery white; with a pale yellow tint[1]
Standard atomic weight Ar°(Yb)
  • 173.045±0.010
  • 173.05±0.02 (abridged)[2]
Ytterbium in the periodic table


Yb

No
thuliumytterbiumlutetium
Atomic number (Z)70
Groupf-block groups (no number)
Periodperiod 6
Block  f-block
Electron configuration[Xe] 4f14 6s2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 8, 2
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid
Melting point1097 K (824 °C, 1515 °F)
Boiling point1469 K (1196 °C, 2185 °F)
Density (near r.t.)6.90 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)6.21 g/cm3
Heat of fusion7.66 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization129 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity26.74 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 736 813 910 1047 (1266) (1465)
Atomic properties
Oxidation states0,[3] +1,[4] +2, +3 (a basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.1 (?)
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 603.4 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1174.8 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2417 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 176 pm
Covalent radius187±8 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of ytterbium
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structure face-centered cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic crystal structure for ytterbium
Speed of sound thin rod1590 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansionβ, poly: 26.3 µm/(m⋅K) (r.t.)
Thermal conductivity38.5 W/(m⋅K)
Electrical resistivityβ, poly: 0.250 µΩ⋅m (at r.t.)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic
Molar magnetic susceptibility+249.0×10−6 cm3/mol (2928 K)[5]
Young's modulusβ form: 23.9 GPa
Shear modulusβ form: 9.9 GPa
Bulk modulusβ form: 30.5 GPa
Poisson ratioβ form: 0.207
Vickers hardness205–250 MPa
Brinell hardness340–440 MPa
CAS Number7440-64-4
History
Namingafter Ytterby (Sweden), where it was mined
DiscoveryJean Charles Galissard de Marignac (1878)
First isolationCarl Auer von Welsbach (1906)
Isotopes of ytterbium
Main isotopes[6] Decay
abun­dance half-life (t1/2) mode pro­duct
166Yb synth 56.7 h ε 166Tm
168Yb 0.126% stable
169Yb synth 32.026 d ε 169Tm
170Yb 3.02% stable
171Yb 14.2% stable
172Yb 21.8% stable
173Yb 16.1% stable
174Yb 31.9% stable
175Yb synth 4.185 d β 175Lu
176Yb 12.9% stable
177Yb synth 1.911 h β 177Lu
Symbol_category_class.svg Category: Ytterbium
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In 1878, Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac separated from the rare earth "erbia" (another independent component) which he called "ytterbia", for Ytterby, the village in Sweden near where he found the new component of erbium. He suspected that ytterbia was a compound of a new element that he called "ytterbium" (in total, four elements were named after the village, the others being yttrium, terbium, and erbium). In 1907, the new earth "lutecia" was separated from ytterbia, from which the element "lutecium" (now lutetium) was extracted by Georges Urbain, Carl Auer von Welsbach, and Charles James. After some discussion, Marignac's name "ytterbium" was retained. A relatively pure sample of the metal was not obtained until 1953. At present, ytterbium is mainly used as a dopant of stainless steel or active laser media, and less often as a gamma ray source.

Natural ytterbium is a mixture of seven stable isotopes, which altogether are present at concentrations of 0.3 parts per million. This element is mined in China, the United States, Brazil, and India in form of the minerals monazite, euxenite, and xenotime. The ytterbium concentration is low because it is found only among many other rare-earth elements; moreover, it is among the least abundant. Once extracted and prepared, ytterbium is somewhat hazardous as an eye and skin irritant. The metal is a fire and explosion hazard.

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