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Chemical element, symbol Y and atomic number 39 / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Yttrium is a chemical element; it has symbol Y and atomic number 39. It is a silvery-metallic transition metal chemically similar to the lanthanides and has often been classified as a "rare-earth element".[6] Yttrium is almost always found in combination with lanthanide elements in rare-earth minerals and is never found in nature as a free element. 89Y is the only stable isotope and the only isotope found in the Earth's crust.

Quick facts: Yttrium, Pronunciation, Appearance, Standard ...
Yttrium, 39Y
Pronunciation/ˈɪtriəm/ (IT-ree-əm)
Appearancesilvery white
Standard atomic weight Ar°(Y)
Yttrium in the periodic table


Atomic number (Z)39
Groupgroup 3
Periodperiod 5
Block  d-block
Electron configuration[Kr] 4d1 5s2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 9, 2
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid
Melting point1799 K (1526 °C, 2779 °F)
Boiling point3203 K (2930 °C, 5306 °F)
Density (near r.t.)4.472 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)4.24 g/cm3
Heat of fusion11.42 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization363 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity26.53 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1883 2075 (2320) (2627) (3036) (3607)
Atomic properties
Oxidation states0,[3] +1, +2, +3 (a weakly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.22
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 600 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1180 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 1980 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 180 pm
Covalent radius190±7 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of yttrium
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structure hexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for yttrium
Speed of sound thin rod3300 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansionα, poly: 10.6 µm/(m⋅K) (at r.t.)
Thermal conductivity17.2 W/(m⋅K)
Electrical resistivityα, poly: 596 nΩ⋅m (at r.t.)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic[4]
Molar magnetic susceptibility+2.15×10−6 cm3/mol (2928 K)[5]
Young's modulus63.5 GPa
Shear modulus25.6 GPa
Bulk modulus41.2 GPa
Poisson ratio0.243
Brinell hardness200–589 MPa
CAS Number7440-65-5
Namingafter Ytterby (Sweden) and its mineral ytterbite (gadolinite)
DiscoveryJohan Gadolin (1794)
First isolationFriedrich Wöhler (1838)
Isotopes of yttrium
Main isotopes Decay
abun­dance half-life (t1/2) mode pro­duct
87Y synth 3.4 d ε 87Sr
88Y synth 106.6 d ε 88Sr
89Y 100% stable
90Y synth 2.7 d β 90Zr
91Y synth 58.5 d β 91Zr
Symbol_category_class.svg Category: Yttrium
| references

The most important present-day use of yttrium is as a component of phosphors, especially those used in LEDs. Historically, it was once widely used in the red phosphors in television set cathode ray tube displays.[7] Yttrium is also used in the production of electrodes, electrolytes, electronic filters, lasers, superconductors, various medical applications, and tracing various materials to enhance their properties.

Yttrium has no known biological role. Exposure to yttrium compounds can cause lung disease in humans.[8]

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