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Armenia (/ɑːrˈmniə/ ar-MEE-nee-ə),[14][lower-alpha 1] officially the Republic of Armenia,[lower-alpha 2] is a landlocked country in the Armenian Highlands of West Asia.[15][16] It is a part of the Caucasus region and is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north and Azerbaijan to the east, and Iran and the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan to the south.[17] Yerevan is the capital, largest city and financial center.

Quick facts: Republic of ArmeniaՀայաստանի Հանրապետություն&...
Republic of Armenia
Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն (Armenian)
Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun
Motto: Մեկ ազգ, մեկ մշակույթ
Mek Azg, Mek Mshakouyt
(English: "One nation, one culture")
Anthem: Մեր Հայրենիք
Mer Hayrenik
"Our Fatherland"
Location of Armenia
Location of Armenia
and largest city
40°11′N 44°31′E
Official languagesArmenian[1]
Ethnic groups
Christianity (Armenian Apostolic Church)[4]
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
Vahagn Khachaturyan
Nikol Pashinyan
Alen Simonyan
LegislatureNational Assembly
16th century BC - 13th century BC
860 BC – 590 BC
6th century BC
321 BC–428 AD
190 BC
28 May 1918
29 November 1920
23 September 1991
21 December 1991
2 March 1992
5 July 1995
29,743 km2 (11,484 sq mi) (138th)
 Water (%)
 2022 estimate
Neutral decrease 3,000,756[10] (138th)
101.5/km2 (262.9/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
Increase $58.497 billion[11] (115th)
 Per capita
Increase $19,745[11] (81st)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
Increase $24.540 billion[11] (115th)
 Per capita
Increase $8,283[11] (82nd)
Gini (2019)Positive decrease 29.9[12]
HDI (2021)Increase 0.759[13]
high · 85th
CurrencyDram (֏) (AMD)
Time zoneUTC+4 (AMT)
Driving sideright
Calling code+374
ISO 3166 codeAM
Internet TLD

Armenia is a unitary, multi-party, democratic nation-state with an ancient cultural heritage. The first Armenian state of Urartu was established in 860 BC, and by the 6th century BC it was replaced by the Satrapy of Armenia. The Kingdom of Armenia reached its height under Tigranes the Great in the 1st century BC and in the year 301 became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as its official religion.[18][19][20][lower-alpha 3] Armenia still recognises the Armenian Apostolic Church, the world's oldest national church, as the country's primary religious establishment.[4][lower-alpha 4] The ancient Armenian kingdom was split between the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires around the early 5th century. Under the Bagratuni dynasty, the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia was restored in the 9th century before falling in 1045. Cilician Armenia, an Armenian principality and later a kingdom, was located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea between the 11th and 14th centuries.

Between the 16th and 19th centuries, the traditional Armenian homeland composed of Eastern Armenia and Western Armenia came under the rule of the Ottoman and Persian empires, repeatedly ruled by either of the two over the centuries. By the 19th century, Eastern Armenia had been conquered by the Russian Empire, while most of the western parts of the traditional Armenian homeland remained under Ottoman rule. During World War I, 1.5 million Armenians living in their ancestral lands in the Ottoman Empire were systematically exterminated in the Armenian genocide. In 1918, following the Russian Revolution, all non-Russian countries declared their independence after the Russian Empire ceased to exist, leading to the establishment of the First Republic of Armenia. By 1920, the state was incorporated into the Soviet Union. The modern Republic of Armenia became independent in 1991 during the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

Armenia is a developing country and ranks 85th on the Human Development Index (2021).[13] Its economy is primarily based on industrial output and mineral extraction. While Armenia is geographically located in the South Caucasus, it is generally considered geopolitically European. Since Armenia aligns itself in many respects geopolitically with Europe, the country is a member of numerous European organizations including the Organization for Security and Co-Operation in Europe, the Council of Europe, the Eastern Partnership, Eurocontrol, the Assembly of European Regions, and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Armenia is also a member of certain regional groups throughout Eurasia, including the Asian Development Bank, the Collective Security Treaty Organization, the Eurasian Economic Union, and the Eurasian Development Bank. Armenia supported once de facto independent Republic of Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabakh), which was proclaimed in 1991 on territory internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan until September 2023.

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