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Bahrain (/bɑːˈrn/ (listen) bah-RAYN; /bæxˈrn/; Arabic: البحرين, romanized: al-Bahrayn, locally [æl baħˈreːn] (listen)), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain,[lower-alpha 1] is an island country in Western Asia. It is situated on the Persian Gulf, and comprises a small archipelago made up of 50 natural islands and an additional 33 artificial islands, centered on Bahrain Island which makes up around 83 percent of the country's landmass. Bahrain is situated between Qatar and the northeastern coast of Saudi Arabia, to which it is connected by the King Fahd Causeway. According to the 2020 census, the country's population numbers 1,501,635, of which 712,362 are Bahraini nationals.[4] Bahrain spans some 760 square kilometres (290 sq mi),[15] and is the third-smallest nation in Asia after the Maldives and Singapore.[16] The capital and largest city is Manama.

Quick facts: Kingdom of Bahrainمملكة البحرين (Arabic)...
Kingdom of Bahrain
مملكة البحرين (Arabic)
Mamlakat al-Bahrayn
Anthem: بحريننا
Bahraynunā
Our Bahrain
Location of Bahrain (in green)
Capital
and largest city
Manama
26°13′N 50°35′E
Official languagesArabic[1]
Recognised languagesEnglish[2][3]
Ethnic groups
(2020)[4]
Religion
(2020)[5]
Demonym(s)Bahraini
GovernmentUnitary Islamic parliamentary semi-constitutional monarchy
 King
Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa
Salman bin Hamad Al Khalifa
LegislatureNational Assembly
Consultative Council
Council of Representatives
Establishment
1783
 Declared Independence[6]
14 August 1971
 Independence from United Kingdom[7]
15 August 1971
21 September 1971
14 February 2002
Area
 Total
786.5[8] km2 (303.7 sq mi) (173rd)
 Water (%)
negligible
Population
 2021 estimate
1,463,265[9][10] (149th)
 2020 census
1,501,635[4]
 Density
1,912.7/km2 (4,953.9/sq mi) (3rd)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
 Total
$87.150 billion[11] (101st)
 Per capita
$57,142[12] (23rd)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
 Total
$44.169 billion[12] (97th)
 Per capita
$29,103[12] (39th)
HDI (2021) 0.875[13]
very high · 35th
CurrencyBahraini dinar (BHD)
Time zoneUTC+3 (AST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+973
ISO 3166 codeBH
Internet TLD.bh
Website
bahrain.bh
  1. Since 17 November 1967.[14]
  2. 46% are Bahraini citizens, 4.7% are other Arabs.
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Bahrain is the site of the ancient Dilmun civilization.[17] It has been famed since antiquity for its pearl fisheries, which were considered the best in the world into the 19th century.[18] Bahrain was one of the earliest areas to be influenced by Islam, during the lifetime of Muhammad in 628 AD. Following a period of Arab rule, Bahrain was ruled by the Portuguese Empire from 1521 until 1602, when they were expelled by Shah Abbas I of the Safavid dynasty. In 1783, the Bani Utbah clan captured Bahrain from Nasr Al-Madhkur and it has since been ruled by the Al Khalifa royal family, with Ahmed al Fateh as Bahrain's first hakim.

In the late 1800s, following successive treaties with the British, Bahrain became a protectorate of the United Kingdom.[19] In 1971, it declared independence. Formerly an emirate, Bahrain was declared an Islamic constitutional monarchy in 2002. In 2011, the country experienced protests inspired by the regional Arab Spring.[20] Bahrain's ruling Sunni Muslim Al Khalifa royal family has been criticised for violating the human rights of groups including dissidents, political opposition figures, and its majority Shia Muslim population.[21]

Bahrain developed the first post-oil economy in the Persian Gulf,[22] the result of decades of investing in the banking and tourism sectors;[23] many of the world's largest financial institutions have a presence in the country's capital. It consequently ranks 35th in the Human Development Index and is recognised by the World Bank as a high-income economy. Bahrain is a member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab League, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Gulf Cooperation Council.[24]