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Chile,[lower-alpha 1] officially the Republic of Chile,[lower-alpha 2] is a country located in western South America. It is the southernmost country in the world and closest to Antarctica, stretching along a narrow strip of land between the Andes Mountains and the Pacific Ocean. With an area of 756,096 square kilometers (291,930 sq mi) and a population of 17.5 million as of 2017,[5] Chile shares borders with Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage to the south. The country also controls several Pacific islands, including Juan Fernández, Isla Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island, and claims about 1,250,000 square kilometers (480,000 sq mi) of Antarctica as the Chilean Antarctic Territory.[nb 2] The capital and largest city of Chile is Santiago, and the national language is Spanish.

34°S 71°W
Quick facts: Republic of ChileRepública de Chile (Spa...
Republic of Chile
República de Chile (Spanish)
Motto: Por la razón o la fuerza
("By reason or by force")
Anthem: Himno Nacional de Chile
("National Anthem of Chile")
Chilean territory in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled territory in light green
Chilean territory in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled territory in light green
and largest city
33°26′S 70°40′W
National languageSpanish
  • 37.4% No religion
  • 0.5% Other
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic
Gabriel Boric
Juan Antonio Coloma
Vlado Mirosevic
Juan Fuentes Belmar
LegislatureNational Congress
Chamber of Deputies
from Spain
18 September 1810
12 February 1818
25 April 1844
11 September 1980
756,096.3[2] km2 (291,930.4 sq mi) (37th)
 Water (%)
2.1 (as of 2015)[3]
 2022 estimate
18,430,408[4] (66th)
 2017 census
17,574,003[5] (64th)
24/km2 (62.2/sq mi) (198th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
Increase $568.319 billion[6] (45th)
 Per capita
Increase $28,526[6] (64th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
Increase $317.594 billion[6] (45th)
 Per capita
Decrease $15,941[6] (62nd)
Gini (2021)Negative increase 46[7]
HDI (2021)Increase 0.855[8]
very high · 42nd
CurrencyChilean peso (CLP)
Time zoneUTC−4 and −6 (CLT and EASTc)
 Summer (DST)
UTC-3 and −5
April to September
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+56
ISO 3166 codeCL
  1. Legislature is based in Valparaíso.
  2. Includes Easter Island and Isla Salas y Gómez; does not include 1,250,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi) of territory claimed in Antarctica.

Spain conquered and colonized the region in the mid-16th century, replacing Inca rule, but failed to conquer the independent Mapuche people who inhabited what is now south-central Chile. In 1818, after declaring independence from Spain, Chile emerged as a relatively stable authoritarian republic in the 1830s. During the 19th century, Chile experienced significant economic and territorial growth, putting an end to Mapuche resistance in the 1880s and gaining its current northern territory in the War of the Pacific (1879–83) by defeating Peru and Bolivia. In the 20th century, up until the 1970s, Chile underwent a process of democratization[10][11] and experienced rapid population growth and urbanization,[12] while relying increasingly on exports from copper mining to support its economy.[13][14] During the 1960s and 1970s, the country was marked by severe left-right political polarization and turmoil, which culminated in the 1973 Chilean coup d'état that overthrew Salvador Allende's democratically elected left-wing government. This was followed by a 16-year right-wing military dictatorship under Augusto Pinochet, which resulted in more than 3,000 deaths or disappearances.[15] The regime ended in 1990, following a referendum in 1988, and was succeeded by a center-left coalition, which ruled until 2010.

Chile has a high-income economy and is one of the most economically and socially stable nations in South America, leading Latin America in competitiveness, per capita income, globalization, peace, and economic freedom.[16] Chile also performs well in the region in terms of sustainability of the state and democratic development,[17] and boasts the second lowest homicide rate in the Americas, following only Canada. Chile is a founding member of the United Nations, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), and the Pacific Alliance, and joined the OECD in 2010.