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Ghana (/ˈɡɑːnə/ (listen); Twi: Gaana, Ewe: Gana), officially the Republic of Ghana, is a country in West Africa.[9] It abuts the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean to the south, sharing borders with Ivory Coast in the west, Burkina Faso in the north, and Togo in the east.[10] Ghana covers an area of 238,535 km2 (92,099 sq mi), spanning diverse biomes that range from coastal savannas to tropical rainforests. With nearly 31 million inhabitants (according to 2021 census), Ghana is the second-most populous country in West Africa, after Nigeria.[11] The capital and largest city is Accra; other major cities are Kumasi, Tamale, and Sekondi-Takoradi.

Quick facts: Republic of Ghana, Capitaland largest city, O...
Republic of Ghana
Motto: "Freedom and Justice"
Anthem: "God Bless Our Homeland Ghana"
and largest city
5°33′N 0°12′W
Official languagesEnglish[1][2]
Recognised national languages
Ethnic groups
(2021 census[3])
(2021 census[3])
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic
Nana Akufo-Addo
Mahamudu Bawumia
Alban Bagbin
Kwasi Anin-Yeboah
Independence from the United Kingdom
6 March 1957
1 July 1960
238,535 km2 (92,099 sq mi) (80th)
 Water (%)
4.61 (11,000 km2; 4,247 mi2)
 2022 estimate
32,103,042[4] (47th)
 2021 census
101.5/km2 (262.9/sq mi) (103rd)
GDP (PPP)2020 estimate
$226 billion[6]
 Per capita
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
$81.625  billion[6]
 Per capita
Gini (2016) 43.5[7]
HDI (2021) 0.632[8]
medium · 133rd
CurrencyCedi (GHS)
Time zoneUTC (GMT)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+233
ISO 3166 codeGH

The first permanent state in present-day Ghana was the Bono state of the 11th century.[12] Numerous kingdoms and empires emerged over the centuries, of which the most powerful were the Kingdom of Dagbon in the north[13] and the Ashanti Empire in the south.[14] Beginning in the 15th century, the Portuguese Empire, followed by numerous other European powers, contested the area for trading rights, until the British ultimately established control of the coast by the late 19th century. Following over a century of colonisation, Ghana's current borders took shape, encompassing four separate British colonial territories: Gold Coast, Ashanti, the Northern Territories and British Togoland. These were unified as an independent dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations on 6 March 1957, becoming the first colony in West Africa to achieve sovereignty.[15][16][17] Ghana subsequently became influential in decolonisation efforts and the Pan-African movement.[18]

Ghana is a multi-ethnic country with a diverse population, linguistic and religious groups;[19] while the Akan are the largest ethnic group, they constitute only a plurality. Most Ghanaians are Christians (71.3%); almost a fifth are Muslims; a tenth practise traditional faiths or report no religion.[3] Ghana is a unitary constitutional democracy led by a president who is both head of state and head of government.[20] Ghana has maintained since 1993 one of the freest and most stable governments on the continent, and it performs relatively well in healthcare, economic growth, and human development,[18] so that it has significant influence in West Africa[21] and is highly integrated in international affairs, being a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, the African Union, the Economic Community of West African States, the Group of 24, and the Commonwealth of Nations.[22]