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Serbia (/ˈsɜːrbiə/ (Loudspeaker.svglisten), SUR-bee-ə; Serbian: Србија, Srbija, pronounced [sř̩bija] (Loudspeaker.svglisten)), officially the Republic of Serbia (Serbian: Република Србија, Republika Srbija, pronounced [repǔblika sř̩bija] (Loudspeaker.svglisten)), is a landlocked country in Southeastern and Central Europe, situated at the crossroads of the Pannonian Basin and the Balkans. It shares land borders with Hungary to the north, Romania to the northeast, Bulgaria to the southeast, North Macedonia to the south, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina to the west, and Montenegro to the southwest, and claims a border with Albania through the disputed territory of Kosovo. Serbia without Kosovo has about 6.7 million inhabitants, about 8.4 million if Kosovo is included. Its capital Belgrade is also the largest city.

44°N 21°E
Quick facts: Republic of SerbiaРепублика Србија (Serb...
Republic of Serbia
Република Србија (Serbian)
Republika Srbija (Serbian)
Anthem: Боже правде
Bože pravde
(English: "God of Justice")
Location of Serbia (green) and the disputed territory of Kosovo (light green) in Europe (dark grey)
and largest city
44°48′N 20°28′E
Official languagesSerbian[lower-alpha 1]
Ethnic groups
  • 3.1% Islam
  • 1.1% no religion
  • 5.2% other / unanswered
  • (excluding Kosovo)
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
Aleksandar Vučić
Ana Brnabić
Vladimir Orlić
LegislatureNational Assembly
Establishment history
 Independence restored
 Including Kosovo
88,499 km2 (34,170 sq mi) (111th)
 Excluding Kosovo
77,474 km2 (29,913 sq mi)[1]
 2022 census
Neutral decrease 6,647,003 (excluding Kosovo)[2] (107th)
85.8/km2 (222.2/sq mi) (130th)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
Increase $164.8 billion (excluding Kosovo)[3] (80th)
 Per capita
Increase $23,534 (excluding Kosovo)[3] (68th)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
Increase $62.7  billion (excluding Kosovo)[3] (88th)
 Per capita
Increase $10,147 (excluding Kosovo)[3] (80th)
Gini (2019)Positive decrease 33.3[4]
HDI (2021)Increase 0.802[5]
very high · 63rd
CurrencySerbian dinar (RSD)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 Summer (DST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+381
ISO 3166 codeRS
Internet TLD

Continuously inhabited since the Paleolithic Age, the territory of modern-day Serbia faced Slavic migrations in the 6th century, establishing several regional states in the early Middle Ages at times recognised as tributaries to the Byzantine, Frankish and Hungarian kingdoms. The Serbian Kingdom obtained recognition by the Holy See and Constantinople in 1217, reaching its territorial apex in 1346 as the Serbian Empire. By the mid-16th century, the Ottomans annexed the entirety of modern-day Serbia; their rule was at times interrupted by the Habsburg Empire, which began expanding towards Central Serbia from the end of the 17th century while maintaining a foothold in Vojvodina. In the early 19th century, the Serbian Revolution established the nation-state as the region's first constitutional monarchy, which subsequently expanded its territory.[6] Following casualties in World War I, and the subsequent unification of the former Habsburg crownland of Vojvodina with Serbia, the country co-founded Yugoslavia with other South Slavic nations, which would exist in various political formations until the Yugoslav Wars of the 1990s. During the breakup of Yugoslavia, Serbia formed a union with Montenegro,[7] which was peacefully dissolved in 2006, restoring Serbia's independence as a sovereign state for the first time since 1918.[8] In 2008, representatives of the Assembly of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence, with mixed responses from the international community while Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory.

Serbia is an upper-middle income economy, ranked "very high" in the Human Development Index domain (63rd position). It is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic, member of the UN, CoE, OSCE, PfP, BSEC, CEFTA, and is acceding to the WTO. Since 2014, the country has been negotiating its EU accession, with the aim of joining the European Union by 2025.[9] Serbia formally adheres to the policy of military neutrality. The country provides universal health care and free primary and secondary education to its citizens.