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Brussels (French: Bruxelles [bʁysɛl] (Loudspeaker.svglisten) or [bʁyksɛl] (Loudspeaker.svglisten); Dutch: Brussel [ˈbrʏsəl] (Loudspeaker.svglisten)), officially the Brussels-Capital Region[7][8] (French: Région de Bruxelles-Capitale;[lower-alpha 1] Dutch: Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest),[lower-alpha 2] is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the capital of Belgium.[9] The Brussels-Capital Region is located in the central portion of the country and is a part of both the French Community of Belgium[10] and the Flemish Community,[11] but is separate from the Flemish Region (within which it forms an enclave) and the Walloon Region.[12][13]

Quick facts: Brussels .mw-parser-output .plainlist ol,...
  • Brussels-Capital Region
  • Région de Bruxelles-Capitale (French)
  • Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest (Dutch)
A collage with several views of Brussels, Top: Northern Quarter business district, 2nd left: Flower Carpet event at the Grand-Place/Grote Markt, 2nd right: Town Hall and Mont des Arts/Kunstberg area, 3rd: Parc du Cinquantenaire/Jubelpark, 4th left: Manneken Pis, 4th middle: Cathedral of St. Michael and St. Gudula, 4th right: Congress Column, Bottom: Royal Palace
Official logo of Brussels
Brussels is located in Belgium
Location within Belgium
Brussels is located in Europe
Location within Europe
Coordinates: 50°50′48″N 04°21′09″E
CountryFlag_of_Belgium_%28civil%29.svg Belgium
CommunityFrench Community
Flemish Community
County of Brusselsc.870
City Charter of Brussels10 June 1229
Region18 June 1989
Founded byCharles, Duke of Lower Lorraine
CapitalCity of Brussels
  ExecutiveGovernment of the Brussels-Capital Region
  Governing parties (2019–present)PS, DéFI, Ecolo; Open Vld, Vooruit, Groen
  Minister-PresidentRudi Vervoort (PS)
  LegislatureParliament of the Brussels-Capital Region
  SpeakerRachid Madrane (PS)
  Region/City162.4 km2 (62.7 sq mi)
13 m (43 ft)
 (1 January 2022)[2][3]
(1 January 2020)
  Density7,500/km2 (19,000/sq mi)
  Official languagesFrench  Dutch
  Ethnic groups25.7% Belgian
74.3% others
• 41.8% non-European[4]
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code(s)
42 postal codes
Area code02
ISO 3166 codeBE-BRU
GDP (nominal)[5]2019
 - Total€87 billion
 - Per capita€71,100
HDI (2019)0.948[6]
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Brussels is the most densely populated region in Belgium, and although it has the highest GDP per capita,[14] it has the lowest available income per household.[15] The Brussels Region covers 162 km2 (63 sq mi), a relatively small area compared to the two other regions, and has a population of over 1.2 million.[16] The five times larger metropolitan area of Brussels comprises over 2.5 million people, which makes it the largest in Belgium.[17][18][19] It is also part of a large conurbation extending towards the cities of Ghent, Antwerp, and Leuven and the province of Walloon Brabant, in total home to over 5 million people.[20]

Brussels grew from a small rural settlement on the river Senne to become an important city-region in Europe. Since the end of the Second World War, it has been a major centre for international politics and home to numerous international organisations, politicians, diplomats and civil servants.[21] Brussels is the de facto capital of the European Union, as it hosts a number of principal EU institutions, including its administrative-legislative, executive-political, and legislative branches (though the judicial branch is located in Luxembourg, and the European Parliament meets for a minority of the year in Strasbourg).[22][23][lower-alpha 3] Because of this, its name is sometimes used metonymically to describe the EU and its institutions.[24][25] The secretariat of the Benelux and the headquarters of NATO are also located in Brussels.[26][27]

As the economic capital of Belgium and a top financial centre of Western Europe with Euronext Brussels, Brussels is classified as an Alpha global city.[28] It is also a national and international hub for rail, road and air traffic,[29] and are sometimes considered, together with Belgium, as the geographic, economic and cultural crossroads of Europe.[30][31][32] The Brussels Metro is the only rapid transit system in Belgium. In addition, both its airport and railway stations are the largest and busiest in the country.[33][34]

Historically Dutch-speaking, Brussels saw a language shift to French from the late 19th century.[35] Nowadays, the Brussels-Capital Region is officially bilingual in French and Dutch.[36][37] French is the lingua franca with over 90% of the inhabitants being able to speak it.[38][39] Brussels is also increasingly becoming multilingual. English is spoken as a second language by nearly a third of the population and many migrants and expatriates speak other languages as well.[38][40]

Brussels is known for its cuisine and gastronomic offer (including its local waffle, its chocolate, its French fries and its numerous types of beers),[41] as well as its historical and architectural landmarks; some of them are registered as UNESCO World Heritage Sites.[42] Principal attractions include its historic Grand-Place/Grote Markt (main square), Manneken Pis, the Atomium, and cultural institutions such as La Monnaie/De Munt and the Museums of Art and History. Due to its long tradition of Belgian comics, Brussels is also hailed as a capital of the comic strip.[43][44]