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Second-longest river in Europe / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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The Danube (/ˈdæn.jb/ DAN-yoob; known by various names in other languages) is the second-longest river in Europe, after the Volga in Russia. It flows through much of Central and Southeastern Europe, from the Black Forest south into the Black Sea. A large and historically important river, it was once a frontier of the Roman Empire. In the 21st century, it connects ten European countries, running through their territories or marking a border. Originating in Germany, the Danube flows southeast for 2,850 km (1,770 mi), passing through or bordering Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria, Moldova, and Ukraine. Among the many cities on the river are four national capitals: Vienna, Bratislava, Budapest, and Belgrade. Its drainage basin amounts to 817,000 km² and extends into nine more countries.

Quick facts: Danube, Native name, Location, Countries, Cit...
The Danube in Budapest
Course of the Danube
Native name
  • Germany
  • Austria
  • Slovakia
  • Hungary
  • Croatia
  • Serbia
  • Bulgaria
  • Romania
  • Moldova
  • Ukraine
Physical characteristics
  locationFurtwangen im Schwarzwald, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  coordinates48°05′44″N 08°09′18″E
  elevation1,078 m (3,537 ft)
2nd sourceBrigach
  locationSt. Georgen im Schwarzwald, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  coordinates48°06′24″N 08°16′51″E
  elevation940 m (3,080 ft)
Source confluence 
  locationDonaueschingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  coordinates47°57′03″N 08°31′13″E
MouthDanube Delta
45°13′3″N 29°45′41″E
Length2,850 km (1,770 mi)[1]
Basin size801,463 km2 (309,447 sq mi)[2]
  minimumMiddle Danube (Iron Gates) 150 m (490 ft); Lower Danube (Brăila) 400 m (1,300 ft)[3]
  averageUpper Danube 300 m (980 ft); Middle Danube 400 m (1,300 ft) to 800 m (2,600 ft); Lower Danube 900 m (3,000 ft) to 1,000 m (3,300 ft)[4][3][2]
  maximumMiddle Danube 1,500 m (4,900 ft); Lower Danube 1,700 m (5,600 ft)[2][3]
  minimum1 m (3 ft 3 in) (Upper Danube)[2]
  averageUpper Danube 8 m (26 ft); Middle Danube 6 m (20 ft) to 10 m (33 ft), 53 m (174 ft) (Iron Gates); Lower Danube 9 m (30 ft)[4][3][2][5]
  maximumMiddle Danube (Iron Gates) 90 m (300 ft); Lower Danube 34 m (112 ft)[3]
  locationBefore the Danube Delta
  average(Period: 1999–2023) 6,484.3 m3/s (228,990 cu ft/s)[6][2]

(Period: 1840–2006) 6,471 m3/s (228,500 cu ft/s)[4] (Period: 1931–2010) 6,510 m3/s (230,000 cu ft/s)[7]

(Period: 1970–2015) 6,546 m3/s (231,200 cu ft/s)[8]
  minimum1,790 m3/s (63,000 cu ft/s)[7]
  maximum15,900 m3/s (560,000 cu ft/s)[7]
  locationBelgrade, Serbia
  average5,600 m3/s (200,000 cu ft/s)
  locationBudapest, Hungary
  average2,350 m3/s (83,000 cu ft/s)
  locationVienna, Austria
  average1,900 m3/s (67,000 cu ft/s)
  locationPassau, Bavaria, Germany
30 km (19 mi) before town
  average580 m3/s (20,000 cu ft/s)

The Danube's longest headstream Breg rises in Furtwangen im Schwarzwald, while the river carries its name from its source confluence in Donaueschingen onwards. Since ancient times, the Danube has been a traditional trade route in Europe. Today, 2,415 km (1,501 mi) of its total length are navigable. The Danube is linked to the North Sea via the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal, connecting the Danube at Kelheim with the Main at Bamberg. The river is also an important source of hydropower and drinking water.

The Danube river basin is home to such fish species as pike, zander, huchen, Wels catfish, burbot and tench. It is also home to numerous diverse carp and sturgeon, as well as salmon and trout. A few species of euryhaline fish, such as European seabass, mullet, and eel, inhabit the Danube Delta and the lower portion of the river.

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