Mughal Empire

1526–1857 empire in South Asia / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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The Mughal Empire was an early modern empire in South Asia.[9] At its peak, the empire stretched from the frontier with Central Asia in northern Afghanistan to the northern uplands of the Deccan plateau, and from the Indus basin on the west to the Assamese highlands in the east.[10]

Quick facts: Mughal Empire, Status, Capital, Religion , Go...
Mughal Empire
1526–1857
Mughal
The empire at its greatest extent in c.1700 under Aurangzeb
StatusEmpire
Capital
Religion
State religion:
GovernmentUnitary absolute monarchy under a federal structure
Emperor[lower-alpha 1] 
 1526–1530 (first)
Babur
 1837–1857 (last)
Bahadur Shah II
Vakil-i-Mutlaq 
 1526–1540 (first)
Mir Khalifa
 1795–1818 (last)
Daulat Rao Sindhia
Grand Vizier 
 1526–1540 (first)
Mir Khalifa
 1775–1797 (last)
Asaf-ud-Daula
Historical eraEarly modern
21 April 1526
1540–1555
5 November 1556
1680–1707
28 March 1737
10 May 1738–1740
22 October 1764
21 September 1857
 Mughal Emperor exiled to Burma
1858
Area
1690[4][5]4,000,000 km2 (1,500,000 sq mi)
Population
 1595
125,000,000[6]
 1700
158,000,000[7]
CurrencyRupee, Taka, dam[8]:73–74
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Blank.png Delhi Sultanate
Blank.png Sur Empire
Blank.png Malwa Sultanate
Blank.png Bengal Sultanate
Blank.png Gujarat Sultanate
Blank.png Kashmir Sultanate
Blank.png Khandesh Sultanate
Blank.png Rajputana
Blank.png Portuguese Empire
Blank.png Ahmadnagar Sultanate
Blank.png Bijapur Sultanate
Blank.png Golconda Sultanate
Blank.png Madurai Nayak dynasty
Sur Empire Blank.png
Maratha Confederacy Blank.png
Hyderabad State Blank.png
Nawabs of Bengal Blank.png
Afsharid Empire Blank.png
Kingdom of Mysore Blank.png
Oudh State Blank.png
Carnatic Sultanate Blank.png
East India Company Blank.png
British Empire Blank.png
Today part of
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The Mughal Empire is conventionally said to have been founded in 1526 by Babur, a chieftain from what is today Uzbekistan, who employed aid from the neighboring Safavid and Ottoman Empires,[11] to defeat the Sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim Lodi, in the First Battle of Panipat, and to sweep down the plains of North India. The Mughal imperial structure, however, is sometimes dated to 1600, to the rule of Babur's grandson, Akbar.[12] This imperial structure lasted until 1720, until shortly after the death of the last major emperor, Aurangzeb,[13][14] during whose reign the empire also achieved its maximum geographical extent. Reduced subsequently to the region in and around Old Delhi by 1760, the empire was formally dissolved by the British Raj after the Indian Rebellion of 1857.

Although the Mughal Empire was created and sustained by military warfare,[15][16][17] it did not vigorously suppress the cultures and peoples it came to rule; rather it equalized and placated them through new administrative practices,[18][19] and diverse ruling elites, leading to more efficient, centralised, and standardized rule.[20] The base of the empire's collective wealth was agricultural taxes, instituted by the third Mughal emperor, Akbar.[21][22] These taxes, which amounted to well over half the output of a peasant cultivator,[23] were paid in the well-regulated silver currency,[20] and caused peasants and artisans to enter larger markets.[24]

The relative peace maintained by the empire during much of the 17th century was a factor in India's economic expansion.[25] The burgeoning European presence in the Indian Ocean and an increasing demand for Indian raw and finished products generated much wealth for the Mughal court.[26] There was more conspicuous consumption among the Mughal elite,[27] resulting in greater patronage of painting, literary forms, textiles, and architecture, especially during the reign of Shah Jahan.[28] Among the Mughal UNESCO World Heritage Sites in South Asia are: Agra Fort, Fatehpur Sikri, Red Fort, Humayun's Tomb, Lahore Fort, Shalamar Gardens, and the Taj Mahal, which is described as "the jewel of Muslim art in India, and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world's heritage."[29]

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